Why did cider, beer and whiskey become the alcoholic bevs of choice in colonial America?
1. Because wine made from native grapes was foxy and unpleasant. 2. Vinifera vines kept failing bc of disease and phylloxera.
Buena Vista was founded by:
"Count" Agoston Haraszthny in 1849. Buena Vista is one of CA's oldest commercial wineries.
What are some of Napa's oldest wineries?
Buena Vista 1857
Charles Krug 1861
What was America's first bonded winery and when was it bonded? Where is it?
Pleasant Valley Wine Co. near Hammondsport in the Finger Lakes in 1860. Still operating today.
Who is Charles Valentine Riley and what did he do?
He was a Missouri entomologist who was the first to understand the innate resistance of American grape species to phylloxera.
When was Prohibition (the 18th Amendment) and the repeal of Prohibition (the 21st Amendment)?
From Repeal through the early 1970s, the American wine industry became truly industrial as it focused on inexpensive, low quality wines fora generally uneducated domestic market.
Fun Facts about Andre Tchelistcheff:
- Russian winemaker trained in France
- Hired to oversee production at Beaulieu in 1938
- Brought new standards of hygiene & techniques to CA, including temperature controlled fermentation and controlled malo
- Mentored Robert Mondavi, Louis Martini, Joe Heitz, Mike Grgich.
What were the two California wines that placed first in the 1976 Judgement of Paris?
white: 1973 Chateau Montelena Chardonnay
red: 1973 Stag's Leap Wine Cellars Cab Sauv
What were the first two AVAs in the U.S.?
1. Augusta, in Missouri, 1980
2. Napa Valley, in California, 1981
Who/what oversees the AVA system?
The Tax & Trade Bureau (TTB). It's a new federal bureau created by the Homeland Security Act of 2002.
What % of grapes are required for a single vineyard to be designated on the label?
95% if single vineyard
What % of grapes are required for a single AVA to be designated on the label?
85% if single AVA
What % of grapes are required for a single county, state or country to be designated on the label?
75% if single county, state or country, except for CA and OR -- both states require that wines can be made solely from grapes grown in the state. WA allows up to 5% to be grown out of state (95% must be from WA).
Other fun Labeling Laws:
1. If vintage dated, appellation must be smaller than country.
2. If AVA printed, min. 95% must be from the state vintage.
2a. If state or county, 85% must be from state vintage. 3. Varietal designation: must contain min 75% stated varietal, except for V. Labrusca which is a minimum of 51%
4. ABV must be stated w/in margin of +/- 1.5%
5. Wines in 7-14% ABV may be simply 'table wine' or 'light wine'
6. Gov't health warning must be on the label as well as the phrase 'contains sulfites'
7. Name & address of bottler must be declared.
8. If 'Estate Bottled' 100% of grapes must from from land owned or controlled by the winery.
The major wine growing regions in CA are divided into 4 large AVAs:
1. North Coast 2. South Coast 3. Central Coast 4. Sierra Foothills
What are the terms surrounding 'Meritage'?
It's a term trademarked by the Meritage Alliance.
1. Meritage can be white or red
2. Meritage must be produced from Bdx varietals
3. It's a term used by producers to indicate a premium blend in which no grape accounts for >90% of the wine
What are the counties in the North Coast AVA?
What are the 16 sub-AVAs of Napa?
North to South west side of Silverado Trail:
Stags Leap District
North to South east side of Silverado Trail:
Wild Horse Valley
What are the 16 sub-AVAs of Sonoma?
North to South, West to East:
Fountaingrove District (RRV through Chalk Hill to Sonoma-Napa line)
Pine Mtn-Cloverdale Peak
Knights Valley (warmest in the county)
What are the 9 sub-AVAs of Mendocino? The smallest AVA in America is here, too.
Cole Ranch - smallest AVA in America; it's essentially a monopole of Esterlina (same for McDowell Valley Winery in McDowell Valley)
Pine Mtn-Cloverdale Peak
What are the two rivers in Mendocino?
Russian River and Navarro River
Mendocino Ridge AVA in Mendocino County is restricted to vineyards that are at least _____ ft above sea level.
1200 ft above sea level
CA's Central Coast AVA spans....
the entirety of CA's coastline from San Francisco Bay to Santa Barbara County.
AVAs directly east and south of SF Bay are:
Livermore Valley (warm)
Santa Cruz Mountains (Monte Bello) - this AVA is excluded from the Central Coast AVA, although Santa Cruz County is included
Ben Lemond Mtn
Santa Clara Valley
San Ysidro District
The Paso Robles AVA is huge. How many acres is it?
Where is Bien Nacido Vineyard?
Santa Maria Valley AVA. Planted primarily to CH, PN, PB, Syrah Au Bon Climat Qupe Sine Qua Non Ojai
What are 7 sub-AVAs of Lodi?
West to East, North to South: Cosumnes River Alta Mesa Sloughhouse Borden Ranch Jahant Makelumne River Clement Hills
The largest and most important AVA in the CA's Central Valley is:
Lodi It's home to over 20% of CA's total wine grape production. It's slightly cooler than much of the Central Valley due to the influence of a gap in the coastal ranges, which pulls coastal air inland from the SF Bay and over the delta.
Other AVAs of note in the Central Valley include:
Dunnigan Hills Clarksburg Capay Valley Merritt Island
What are the sub-AVAs of Sierra Foothills?
Fair Play El Dorado Fiddletown North Yuba California Shenandoah Valley (lowest altitude & the hottest)
What are the AVAs of New York?
Lake Erie Finger Lakes Seneca Lake Cayuga Lake Hudson Valley Long Island North Fork of Long Island The Hamptons
What does the Lake Effect do for upstate NY wine growing regions?
It mitigates the cold -- it lowers the chance of damaging winter freezes and promotes late bud break, lessening dangers of spring frost.
America's (and the world's) largest demarcated appellation is:
Upper Mississippi River Valley AVA. It spans 30,000 square miles in MN, WI, IA, & IL
America's oldest winery is:
Casa Madero, established 1597 in Coahuila, Mexico.
Baja, Mexico's sub-regions:
Valle de Guadalupe Valle de Santo Tomas Valle de San Santonio de la Minas Valle de San Vicente Rhone varietals do well
The 5 AVAs of Santa Barbara County are:
Santa Maria Valley Santa Ynez Valley, within which lies: Sta. Rita Hills, Ballard Canyon and Happy Canyon
The 6 AVAs of Monterey County are:
Carmel Valley Chalone Santa Lucia Highlands Arroyo Seco San Lucas San Antonio
The 4 AVAs of San Luis Obispo County are:
York Mountain Paso Robles Edna Valley Arroyo Grande
What are the 11 sub-AVAs of Paso Robles?
Adelaida District Paso Robles Willow Creek District Templeton Gap District (pretty cool) El Pomar District Paso Robles Geneseo District San Miguel District Paso Robles Estrella District San Juan Creek (pretty warm) Creston District Paso Robles Highlands District Santa Margarita Ranch
Name the AVAs
Map of Napa Valley
Name the AVAs
Map of Sonoma County
Besides Martinelli, name some RRV wineries:
Name some vineyards in California and where they are:
Cerise - Anderson Valley
To Kalon - Oakville
Gap's Crown - Sonoma Coast
Garys' Vineyard - Santa Lucia Highlands
Bacigalupi - RRV