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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (30):
1

How do sociologists define socialization?
a. the ability to interact with people and have a good time socially
b. the process of passing on to new members a culture’s ways of thinking and acting
c. the social principles accepted by a society as a whole or by a group within that society
d. cultural rules that tell us what, where, when, how, and why we should do something

b. the process of passing on to new members a culture’s ways of thinking and acting

2

When does socialization stop?
a. at five years of age
b. during adolescence
c. in middle age
d. at death

at death

3

Which sociological perspective is interested in how the transmission of cultural norms ensures the stability of both families and society?
a. conflict theory
b. feminist theory
c. structural functionalism
d. symbolic interactionism

structural functionalism

4

When considering socialization, what do feminist thinkers look at?
a. the way inequities in society are maintained from one generation to the next
b. how the transmission of cultural norms ensures the stability of families and society
c. how socialization occurs through the day-to-day relationships of individual family members
d. the way family subsystems and boundaries shape children

a. the way inequities in society are maintained from one generation to the next

5

How does socialization most often occur?
a. from reading books
b. through explicit instruction
c. through subtle interactions and observation
d. from going to school

c. through subtle interactions and observation

6

Chad is two years old. His mother wants to train him to use the toilet. According to the text, which of the following factors is unlikely to be involved in his ability to do so?
a. Chad’s level of muscular maturation
b. Chad’s ability to understand what is expected
c. the maturity of Chad’s nervous system
d. the presence of educational toys to amuse Chad

the presence of educational toys to amuse Chad

7

According to the text, how children are socialized depends on which factor?
a. what we expect of their future
b. who their parents are
c. how intelligent they are
d. whether or not the child is at school

a. what we expect of their future

8

According to the text, what did the 20th century see the arrival of?
a. child labour in the street trades, such as polishing shoes
b. the economically worthless but emotionally priceless child
c. a refusal to conform to scientific child-rearing standards
d. the emotionally neglected but economically valued child

the economically worthless but emotionally priceless child

9

What is one criticism of child-rearing experts during the first half of the 20th century?
a. Their theories were based on observations of white middle-class families.
b. They regarded children as economically worthless but emotionally priceless.
c. Their theories depended too much on tradition and not enough on science.
d. Their theories were based on observation of children with abnormalities.

Their theories were based on observations of white middle-class families.

10

In the earlier part of the 20th century, experts intruded in the family life of poor and minority families, especially if they were on welfare. How did they do this?
a. by allowing the children to sue parents for “divorce”
b. by expecting the families to conform to traditional values and standards
c. by advising the children to report their parents for abuse or neglect
d. by expecting the families to conform to “scientific” standards of child rearing

by expecting the families to conform to “scientific” standards of child rearing

11

According to the text, what is one explanation for why children from the same family can turn out so differently?
a. they are not biologically related
b. they have different levels of intelligence
c. they are socialized differently
d. they live in different countries

they are socialized differently

12

According to the text, which of the following was a sign that childhood was increasingly seen as being different from adulthood?
a. the development of specialized children’s institutions
b. the mainstreaming of children in groups of different ages
c. the exploitation of children by business owners
d. the provision of special apprenticeships for adolescents

the development of specialized children’s institutions

13

Generally, who has the single most powerful influence in the socialization of children?
a. friends
b. siblings
c. teachers
d. parents

parents

14

According to the text, which statement is true concerning the socialization of children?
a. When both parents work, they have little influence on socialization.
b. Parents exert a great deal of indirect control over their children’s environment.
c. Siblings of the same sex are more important socializers than siblings of the other sex.
d. Teachers are the most important socializers for children.

Parents exert a great deal of indirect control over their children’s environment.

15

Sometimes, a child is raised by a teenage mother and her parents. Which term is used to describe this situation?

triparenting

16

Some studies have found that children living in single-parent homes face a higher risk of low academic achievement and of dropping out. When monetary and non-monetary resources are statistically controlled, what happens to this relationship?
a. it is reduced and may even disappear
b. it is increased
c. it gives further evidence that the relationship is strong
d. it proves that children in single-parent homes face many academic challenges

it is reduced and may even disappear

17

What happened to the proportion of children living in households with married parents between 2001 and 2011?
a. it decreased
b. it increased
c. it stayed the same
d. it fluctuated dramatically

it decreased

18

Studies on the negative effects on children associated with divorced, single-parent, and stepparent families have found that these effects are often greatest during which time?
a. six months before the divorce
b. three years after the change in family structure
c. until the child is 6 years old
d. immediately following the change in family structure

immediately following the change in family structure

19

On average, in which family structure do children do best?
a. a single-parent household in which the parent is working
b. both biological parents married to each other
c. cohabiting families where both parents are biological
d. adopted children with married parents

both biological parents married to each other

20

Alex’s mother is lesbian and lives with her girlfriend. According to the text, what situation is most likely to arise for Alex?
a. he will grow up to be gay because of his role models
b. his mother will have poor parenting skills
c. he will do as well as children in lone-parent families
d. he won’t have any male role models

he will do as well as children in lone-parent families

21

Several studies have found that children from a higher socioeconomic status continue to learn during the summer months of elementary school, but lower-SES students tend to stagnate or lose ground. Which term is used to describe this phenomenon?
a. summer slide
b. SES disadvantage
c. summer schooling
d. learning loss

summer slide

22

According to the text, which of the following best describes young adolescent parents?
a. They are as competent as other parents.
b. They almost always have adequate financial resources.
c. They are still finding their own identity.
d. They usually live common-law.

They are still finding their own identity.

23

According to the text, which of the following are teen mothers living in romantic relationships likely to do?
a. pay attention to their boyfriend, not their child
b. suffer in their development, as do their children
c. be less harsh with their children than other young mothers
d. be less competent and well-adjusted than other young mothers

be less harsh with their children than other young mothers

24

In 2008, what was the average age of mothers?
a. 19.8 years
b. 23.4 years
c. 29.8 years
d. 32.5 years

32.5 years

25

Zachary’s parents were in their 40s when he was born. According to the text, what often happens to children like Zachary who have older parents?
a. They find that their parents’ age makes no difference to their lives.
b. They enjoy many activities with extended family members such as grandparents.
c. They are more likely to be afraid their parents will die before they become independent.
d. They are less likely to enjoy luxuries than children of younger parents, who can earn more.

They are more likely to be afraid their parents will die before they become independent.

26

What percentage of children living with married biological parents have serious problems?
a. 5 percent
b. 10 percent
c. 20 percent
d. 30 percent

10 percent

27

According to the text, what do studies of differing family types show?
a. Children do better in two-parent families because they are better monitored.
b. Mothers in two-parent families have better psychological health and thus are better parents.
c. Interaction within families has greater impact than family structure itself.
d. Children do better after divorced parents remarry because they now fit the social script.

Interaction within families has greater impact than family structure itself.

28

According to the text, what might adoptive and other non-biological parents have difficulties with because they are not perceived as genuine parents by many in society?
a. loving the adopted child
b. disciplining the child
c. providing adequate physical care
d. genealogical bewilderment

disciplining the child

29

What is the effect of separation and lack of contact with a parent?
a. It affects girls separated from fathers more than boys.
b. It affects boys separated from fathers more than girls.
c. It affects boys separated from mothers more than girls.
d. It affects both sexes equally.

It affects boys separated from fathers more than girls.

30

According to the text, which of the following is most likely to happen to children who experience too many separations from parents and parent figures?
a. They may rely heavily on the goodwill of strangers.
b. They may become attached to new people too quickly.
c. They may feel emotionally comfortable with stepparents.
d. They may fear becoming attached again.

They may fear becoming attached again.