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Flashcards in Final 2 Deck (25):

How often do IQ tests have to be renormed and why?

Secular trend toward generational rise. They have to be renormed because of new vocabulary due to electronic devices.


What are factors that affect performance?

1. Anxiety - brain fog
2. Experience with the testing "program"
3. Stereotype threat - fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype


How do you reduce cultural bias in tests?

1. Find out what is adaptive behaviour for their culture
2. Purposefully teach how to manage the testing situation
3. Called dynamic assessment - leads to a better estimate of intelligence


Metalinguistic awareness increases in...?

Middle childhood


How does vocabulary increase in middle childhood?

Increases during the school years. 20 new words a day.


How does grammar increase in middle childhood?

Passive voice, infinitive phrases


How does pragmatics increase in middle childhood?

Communicating clearly, narratives, interruptions, etc


When learning two languages, what are the types of bilingual development?

1. Learn both languages at the same time
2. Learn first language, then second
3. Code-switching
4. Sensitive period: childhood


What are the types of bilingual education?

Language immersion, bilingual education


What is code switching?

Hearing a language, translating it, and saying it back.


Whats the disadvantage of language immersion?

A lot of competition between listening to the content and system of the language.


What is the correlation between academic achievement and class size?

Children in smaller classes score higher, show better concentration, higher-quality class participation and more favourable attitudes towards school than those in larger classes. Teachers then have more time for individual attention.


What is the traditional educational philosophy?

Teacher is the sole authority; students are passed and are measured against uniform standards for grade level.


How do kids do in constructivist classrooms?

Lower on achievement scores on tests, but better critical thinkers


What are constructivist classrooms?

Children are resourced to construct own knowledge, solve self-chosen problems and are evaluated against prior accomplishments.


What is the social-constructivist educational philosophy? (Vygotsky)

Children appropriate knowledge and strategies generated from working together to become competent, contributing members of community.


In social constructivist education, what is reciprocal teaching?

Cooperative groups of 2, 3 or 5 students take turns leading dialogues about a passage


What makes a good teacher?

Good teachers are caring, helpful, stimulating, require high-level thinking.


What is the self-fulfilling prophecy in the educational environment?

Children live up to teacher's positive or negative attitudes towards them. High bias teachers (expect ethnics to do poorly) vs. low bias teachers have students with lower achievement.


What are the types of grouping practices in educational environments?

Homogenous, multigrade classrooms, cooperative learning.


What are homogenous groups?

Teaching students of similar achievement together. Low SES get more drill on basic facts with poorer results.


What are multigrade classrooms?

Old rural all-grade classrooms.


What is cooperative learning?

Training needed for resolving differences of opinion, sharing responsibility, and working toward common goals.


What is a magnet school

Heterogeneity of learning - drama schools, science school, etc.


What is the digital divide?

Low-SES groups less likely to have computers and internet for learning.