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Flashcards in Final 1 Deck (35):

What is pianist continuum of acquisition?

When mastering concrete activities occurs gradually.


What does the follow-up research on concrete operations say?

Culture and schooling affect performance on tasks.


What do neo-piagetians suggestion?

Information-processing helps. Central conceptual structures help children think more effectively in a range of situations. Automatic cognitive schemes free up working memory.


What is the information-processing perspective?

Between ages 6 and 12, there is an increase in information-processing speed and capacity, and gains in inhibition. Both may be related to brain development.


What is attention like in middle childhood?

Attention becomes more selective, adaptable, planful.


What is the development of attentional strategies?

1. Production deficiency
2. Control deficiency
3. Utilization deficiency
4. Effective strategy use


What are the symptoms of children with ADHD?

Cannot stay task-focused for more than a few minutes. Often ignore social rules and lash out when frustrated.


What are the origins of ADHD?

Highly heritable, but also associated with environmental factors. Correlated with a stressful home life.


What is the treatment of ADHD?

Stimulant medication reduces symptoms in 70% of children, but these drugs have risk.


What is the best intervention for children with ADHD?

Medication with combined interventions that model and reinforce behaviour work best.


What is the development of memory strategies?

1. Rehearsal - early grade school
2. Organization - soon after rehearsal
3. Elaboration - end of middle childhood


What promotes memory strategies?

School, but those in non-western cultures may not benefit from instruction in memory strategies.


What is theory of mind like in middle childhood?

Views mind as active, constructive. Understands more about sources of knowledge (mental inferences, false beliefs). They consider interactions of variables. Schooling promotes developing theory of mind.


How can you promote cognitive self-regulation in middle childhood?

Point out special demands of tasks, encourage use of strategies, emphasize value of self-correction, self-regulatory skills help develop a sense of academic self-efficacy.


What are the two approaches to READING? (on information-processing and academic learning)

1. Whole-language approach
2. Phonological awareness. A combination of the two approaches, along with excellent teaching practices, shows the best results in literacy progress for 1st graders.


What are the approaches are best with MATH (on information-processing and academic learning)?

Practice, experimentation with computation. Some processes become automatic, leading to more complex usage.


When age does IQ become more stable around? What can it predict?

6 - can predict school performance and educational attainment.


What do IQ tests provide?

A general score that represents general intelligence and reasoning ability. But not all types of intelligence are measured on current tests. Test designers use factor analysis.


What are the two types of delivery of IQ tests?

Group tests and Individually administered tests.


What are important features of group testing with IQ tests?

Allows testing of large groups, requires little training to administer, useful for instructional planning, identifies students who need further evaluation.


What are important features of individually administered IQ tests?

Examiners need training and experience, provide insights about accuracy of score, identify highly intelligent and children with learning problems.


What are the two types of intelligence tests?

1. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
2. Waschler Intelligene Scale for Children


What is the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale?

- Age 2 - adulthood
- Assess: general knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, working memory and basic information processing.


What is the weschler intelligence scale for children?

- Age 6 - 16
- Measures verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, working memory and processing speed.


What is the weschler intelligence scale for children younger than 6?

Weschler preschool and primary scale of intelligence- revised


IQ Factors: what does general knowledge and quantitative reasoning emphasize?

Culturally loaded, fact-orientated information. The WISC downplays culturally dependent information even more.


What are the recent efforts to define intelligence?

1. Processing speed is moderately correlated with IQ scores.
2. Inhibition, selection attention, and sustained attention are other predictors of IQ.


What are the three main parts of stern bergs triarchic theory of successful intelligence?

1. Analytical intelligence - apply strategies, engage in self-regulation.
2. Creative intelligence - solve novel problems, make processing skills automatic to free working memory.
3. Practical intelligence - Adapt to, shape and select environments to meet both personal goals and the demands of the everyday world.


What is Gardner's multiple intelligences?

(8) separate intelligences: linguistic, logico-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinaesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, intrapersonal.


What is emotional intelligence?

Ability to process and adapt toe motional information. Positively associated with self-esteem, empathy, prosocial behaviour and life satisfaction.


Is emotional intelligence associated with IQ?



What are different explanations for IQ?

Genetics and environment.


How do genetics account for differences in IQ scores?

- Accounts for about half of differences
- 9-point gap across classes
- American blacks were initially found to be about 10 points lower than american whites (test problem?)


How does environment account for differences in IQ scores?

- Early rich environment is important
- SES - 9 point gap across classes
- Different experience but is there a problem with the tests
- Culture


How does cultural explain differences in IQ?

1. Communication styles - parents using collaborative or hierarchal/eurocentric styles
2. Cultural bias in test content - spatial concepts favours majority cultural upbringing.