Flashcards in Post - Midterm 2 - 4 Deck (29):
In mathematical reasoning, what is ordinality?
Order relationships between quantities.
In mathematical reasoning, what is cardinality?
Last number when counting is the total.
What are the factors of early childhood mental development?
Home environment, quality of child care, television (educational TV)
What are the types of preschool and kindergarten?
Child-centered programs, academic programs, montessori education.
What are child-centered programs?
Teachers provide activities from which the children select and most of the day is devoted to play.
What are academic programs?
Teachers structure children's learning through formal lessons, often using repetitive drills (an approach that can undermine motivation)
What is montessori education?
Child-Centered approach with equal emphasis on academic and social development.
What are early interventions for at-risk preschoolers?
Project head start
What is project head start?
Parent involvement essential
What are the long-term benefits of the head start program?
Better early school achievement, less special education and grade retention, more high school graduation, college enrolment.
At what age are advantages seen from head start programs?
Still evident at age 40.
How do the jumpstart programs seem to work?
They provide extra enrichment.
What program has the greater association for cognitive gains?
Centre-Based child care
What is found when investigating high quality child cares?
The more time spend in high-quality child care centers, the less likely children were to display emotional and behavioural problems.
What are signs of developmentally appropriate practice?
Physical setting, group size, caregiver-child ratio, daily activities, adult-child interactions, teacher qualifications, relationships with parents, licensing and accreditation.
What are types of educational media?
__% of U.S. children have computers at home.
__% of 4-6 year olds have used a computer
What is the dominant form of youth media?
What are features of vocabulary development in early childhood?
Fast-mapping, mutual exclusivity bias, syntactic bootstrapping, inventing own words.
What is fast-mapping?
Children ability to connect new words with their underlying concepts after a brief encounter
What is mutual exclusivity bias?
Early in vocabulary growth, childrens assumption that words refer to entirely separate categories
What is syntactic bootstrapping?
Figuring out word meanings by observing how words are used in s syntax, or the structure of sentences
What are the basic rules of grammar development in early childhood?
Overregulation: applying rules without appropriate exceptions.
When do children master pragmatics? (conversation style - when to start a conversation, when to interrupt)
Around age 2. The presence of siblings helps, adapt language to social expectations by age 4. Telephone talk improves significantly from ages 4 to 8.
How can you support language learning in early childhood?
Recasting and expanding.
What is recasting?
Restructuring incorrect speech into correct form.
What are expansions?
Elaborating on children speech.