Post Midterm 2 - 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Post Midterm 2 - 6 Deck (30):

What does the power of inductive discipline do? (psychodynamic perspective)

Encourages sympathy and concern, which motivates prosocial behaviour. Gives children reason for changing their behaviour and encourages moral standards that make sense.


What are the characteristics for the social-learning perspective?

See good models of moral behaviour. Warmth and responsiveness. Competence and power. Consistency between words and behaviour.


What is known about punishment in early childhood?

Physical punishment and frequent punishment have undesirable side effects.


Why does physical punishment have undesirable side effects?

Models aggression, children react with anger and resentment, develop poor relationships with punitive parent, use of corporal punishment may transfer to next generation.


What is the relationship of parental corporal punishment to externalizing behaviour?

Increased difficult temperament.


What is the prevalence of corporal punishment by childs age?

Highest percentage of corporal punishment around 4 years old, then declines.


How is the effectiveness of punishment increased?

Consistency, warm parent-child relationship, explanations.


What are alternatives to punishment?

Time-out, withdrawing privileges, positive discipline.


What is positive discipline?

Prepare, reward good acts and connect to long term goals.


What is the cognitive developmental perspective of moral development?

Teach children to think actively about social rules and make good moral judgments.


When does the cognitive developmental perspective of moral development start to show?

Age 4


How can you use positive discipline to encourage moral development?

Use transgressions as an opportunity to teach, provide reasons for rules, encourage mature behaviour, be sensitive to children's physical and emotional resources.


What are moral imperatives? (moral dev)

Protect peoples' rights and welfare. Victims and other children fact strongly to moral offences. Adults explain rights and feelings of victims.


What are social conventions? (moral dev)

Customs such as table manners or dress styles. Peers seldom react to violations of social convention.


What is the social learning perspective of moral development?

Children watch others' reactions to imperatives vs social conventions. Watch adults deal with rule violations. Hear discussions about moral issues.


By age 2, children show two distinct aggressive acts, what are they?

1) proactive - fulfull a desire or need.
2) reactive - hurt others for hurting you.


What are the three types of aggression?

Physical, verbal, relational.


What is physical aggression?

Harms others through physical injury or destroying another' property.


What is verbal aggression?

Harms others through threats or physical aggression, name-calling or hostile teasing.


What is relational aggression?

Damages another' peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip or friendship manipulation.


How is aggression seen differently in gender? (as toddlers)

At 20 months, boys are more physical and girls are more relationally aggressive.


What are the sources of aggression?

Individual differences (temperament), family (harsh, inconsistent discipline, cycles of discipline) and television (watching tv violence).


What are the gender differences in aggression?

Boys are negative, impulsive and disobedient kids leads to higher aggression, mental health problems and social skills deficits. Girls go quiet.


What is the relationship between childhood tv viewing and later aggression?

As hours per day of TV viewing increase, the number of aggressive acts in adolescence/ early adulthood increase.


How can you help parents with aggressive children?

Early breaking the cycle of hostility, combine commands with reasons, replace insults and spankings with inductive discipline, teach social (problem-solving) skills, reduce poverty and disorganization in communities.


What are gender stereotypes?

Views of appropriate characteristics of males and females.


What are gender roles?

Reflections of stereotypes in everyday behaviour.


What is gender identity?

One's self perception as masculine or feminine.


What is gender typing?

Any association of objects, activities, or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes.


What are the influences on gender typing?

Genetic (hormones, evolution) and environmental (family, teachers, peers, etc).