Flashcards in Post Midterm 2 - 1 Deck (34):
What is physical development like in early childhood?
Body growth slows, shape becomes more streamlined. Skeletal growth continues, lose baby teeth.
How much do they grow in early childhood?
2-3 inches in height, 5 pounds per year.
What is brain development like in early childhood?
Significant brain growth between ages 2-6. Brain grows to 90% of adult size. Reshaping and refining. Overabundance of synaptic connections supports plasticity.
What else happens to the brain in early childhood?
Cognitive skills increase. Physical coordination, perception, attention, memory, language, logical thinking and imagination.
What are the age-related changes in synaptic density? (involved in language processing)
There is a peak around age 2, then it declines.
What happens to the frontal lobes in early childhood?
They develop for planning and organization.
What is the left hemisphere responsible for?
Language skills, handedness.
Differences in rate of development between the two hemisphere suggest what?
That they continue to lateralize during early childhood.
When does handedness begin?
Begins as early as 1 year and strengthens.
What experiences affects handedness?
Position in uterus, practice, culture.
In western nations, what percentage of people are right-handed?
What may cause a shift in handedness? (left handedness)
Early damage to the left hemisphere. However, most left-handers have no developmental problems and are more likely to excel in both verbal and math skills.
How is the brain developed? (what first)
Reticular, cerebellum, emotional control, cerebral cortex, frontal.
What are the influences on physical growth and health?
Heredity, hormones, emotional well-being, nutrition, sleep, infectious disease, childhood injuries.
What happens with low-level lead exposure and children development?
Lead is highly toxic. Elevated blood levels of lead are linked with lower IQ's and behaviour problems. Persistent childhood exposure can also contribute to antisocial behaviour in adolescence.
What is size and growth related to?
Genes. Growth hormone (GH) acts directly, but also stimulates IGF-1, which triggers cell duplication. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) prompts release of thyroxine which is necessary for brain development.
What is the importance of sleep?
Contributes to body growth and cognitive performance. Children's poor sleep affects parent's sleep and functioning.
What are the sleeping arrangements of 3 year olds by ethnicity?
White - Alone in own room
African American - With siblings
Hispanics - With parents
What is nutrition like in early childhood?
Appetite becomes unpredictable. Social environments influence food choices:
- Imitate admired people
- Repeated exposure to foods
- Parental pressure
Children who have a nutritionally deficient diet have?
More attention difficulties
Poorer mental test scores
Behaviour problems, especially hyperactivity and aggression.
Encouraging good nutrition
See chart in lecture chpt 8
What is the link between poor diet and children's Immune systems?
Poor diet suppresses children's immune systems and makes them more susceptible to disease.
What percentage of American infants and toddlers and not fully immunized?
Approx 20%. Rate is higher for poverty-stricken children.
What are factors related to childhood injuries?
Individual differences: Gender, temperament.
What are the gender differences for childhood injury?
Boys are 1.5 times more likely to be injured.
What are risk factors for childhood injury?
Poverty, single parenthood, low parental education, societal conditions, child-care shortages, teen parents.
How do we prevent childhood injury?
Laws prevent many injuries (safety seats, child-resistant caps, flameproof clothing).
What percentage of parents don't place their children in safety seats?
What are the gross and fine motor skills in early childhood development?
Gross - walking, running, catching, throwing, riding.
Fine - self help, dressing, eating, drawing.
What is the progression of drawing skills?
Scribbles during 2nd year. More realistic drawings at preschool to school age.
What age do children start printing?
When do children gain an adult pencil grip?
By age 5
What are differences in body build for motor skills?
Taller and more muscular bodies move more quickly, acquire skills faster. Boys are better at power and force, girls are better at balance and foot movement.