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Flashcards in Post Midterm - 7 Deck (27):
1

How old are infants until they recognize others' facial expressions?

From 5 months and on.

2

What is social referencing?

When children look at something new, they look at their caregiver, and if the caregiver has a happy look, the child continues, if the caregiver has a scared look, the child gets worried.

3

What higher order emotions develop at 18 months?

Sense of self as unique. Sensitive to blame and praise. Notice achievement-related and moral behaviour.

4

What high order emotions develop at 3 years?

Self-evaluation using feedback about worth.

5

What is self-consciousness?

Emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of the child's sense of self.

6

What are the self-conscious emotions?

Shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, pride.

7

Emotional self-regulation improves gradually, with the development of what?

Development of the cerebral cortex.

8

______ contribute to child's self-regulation style.

Caregivers.

9

Wahta re the four temperaments? (also what % of children)

Easy - 40%
Difficult - 10%
Slow-to-warm-up - 15%
Unclassified - 35%

10

Review

Rothbart's Model of Temperament

11

What are the biological developments of shyness?

React negatively, withdraw from new stimuli, high heart rates, stress hormones and symptoms, higher right hemisphere frontal cortex activity.

12

What are the biological developments of sociability?

React positively and approaches new stimuli, low heart rates and stress hormones, higher left hemisphere frontal cortex activity.

13

Is there long term prediction for stability of temperament?

Yes, best achieved after age 3. Extreme changes are unlikely.

14

What factors influence temperament?

Many factors influence temperament, including the biological systems on which temperament is based on effortful control and parenting experiences.

15

What are the genetic influences in temperament?

Responsible for about half of individual differences.

16

What are the environmental influences in temperament?

Cultural caregiving styles, boys and girls treated differently, parents emphasize sibling differences.

17

What is the goodness-of-fit model for temperament?

Combines genetic and environment.

18

What life conditions affects how effective parents are?

Good parental mental health, marital happiness, favourable economic conditions.

19

What is bowlby's ethological theory of attachment?

Look up in text.
1. Pre-attachment
2. Attachment in the making
3. Clear-cut attachment
4. Formation of a reciprocal relationship.

20

How do we know about attachment? (methods/measurements)

1. Strange situation
2. Q-sorts

21

What is the "strange situation"?

The parent comes in with the child and leaves them with the stranger (researcher) - and then we see how the child reacts.

22

What is Q-sort attachment?

Method for children between 1 and 4 years go age. Relies on home observations of up to 90 behaviours. Better reflects parent-child relationship in everyday life. It is a time-consuming method that does not differentiate between types of insecurity.

23

What is secure attachment?

60% - Use the parents as a secure base. Actively seek contact with the parent when he or she returns.

24

What is avoidant attachment?

15% - Seems unresponsive to the parent. Slow to greet the parent upon reunion.

25

What is resistant attachment?

10% - Seek closeness to the parent. Distressed and angry when the parent return.

26

Disorganized/ disoriented attachment?

15% - Pattern reflects greatest insecurity. At reunion, often show confused and contradictory behaviours.

27

What are factors that affect attachment security?

Early consistent caregiver, quality of caregiving (sensitive, interactional), infant characteristics, family circumstances, parents' internal working models.