Flashcards in Midterm 2 - 5 Deck (36):
Eriksons theory: Initiative vs guilt. What is intiative?
Eagerness to try new tasks, join activities with peers, play permits trying out new skills, act out highly visible occupations
Eriksons theory: Initiative vs guilt. What is guilt?
Overly strict superego, or conscience, causing too much guilt. Related to excessive threats, criticism, punishment from adults.
self concept is based on what observable characteristics?
Appearance, possessions, behaviour.
What helps define the boundaries of the self?
Asserting rights to objects e.g. "mine!"
What is our self-esteem?
Judgments we make about our own worth.
What does self-esteem affect?
What age does esteem start to develop about learning, school readiness, making friends, etc.
What does higher esteem lead to?
Leads to new social skills
What does lower esteem lead to?
Leads to giving up easily so reduced experience
What emotional development happens in early childhood (2-6 years)?
Parenting strongly influences preschoolers emotional competence, understanding of others emotions is increasingly accurate, emotional self-regulation improves, more self-conscious emotions (shame, guilt) as self-concept develops, empathy, sympathy and prosocial behaviour increases.
What is empathy?
Feeling with another
What is sympathy?
Add desire to make things better
What is moral development?
Understanding owns emotions + other's emotions + self regulation + self-conscious emotions + empathy and sympathy
As preschoolers age, how does their cognitive development and emotional understanding change?
Judge causes of emotions better, predict actions based on emotions, help relieve others' feelings.
What is prosocial behaviour?
Sense consequences, see behavioural signs accurately, realize thinking goes along with feeling, sorting out conflicts, know wha might help. BENEFITTING OTHERS WITHOUT EXPECTATIONS OF RETURN TO SELF.
What are some behaviours that caregivers can do to help with emotional understanding and social experience?
Label and explain emotions, discuss feelings that highlight the emotional significance of events, acknowledge diverse emotional reactions.
What are some behaviours that siblings and friends can do to help with emotional understanding and social experience?
Negotiate, act out emotions in play, help increase social skills.
What helps children improve their ability to regulate their emotions?
Language and effortful control.
What are aspects of self-regulation?
Negative emotions are harder to manage but are crucial to improve social relations, warm parents improve child stress, parental unresolved anger = poor child emotion management.
What do self-conscious emotions involve?
Involve injury to or enhancement of self.
What does intense shame lead to?
What does guilt (healthy guilt) lead to?
What are common fears of early childhood?
Monsters, ghosts, darkness, preschool/child care, animals, phobias are possible.
What is nonsocial activity? (peer sociability in play)
Unoccupied, solitary play.
What is parallel play? (peer sociability in play)
Plays near other children with similar toys, but does not try to influence them.
What is associative play? (peer sociability in play)
Engage in separate activities, but exchange toys and comments.
What is cooperative play? (peer sociability in play)
Children work toward a common goal (like make-believe play).
What are the cognitive play categories?
Functional play - 0-2
Constructive play - 3-6
Make-believe play 2-6
What is functional play?
Simple, repetitive motor movements, with or without objects.
What is constructive play?
Creating or constructing something
What is make-believe play?
Acting out everyday and imaginative roles
What does social ability to contribute to?
What are the characteristics of early childhood friendships?
Someone who likes you, plays with you and shares toys. Friendships change frequently. Friends are more reinforcing, emotionally expressive than non-friends.
Information-Processing model of social problem solving
See in powerpoint slide.
What are direct parental influences on early peer relations?
Arrange informal peer activities. Allow child to act as host. Provide guidance on how to act toward others.