Flashcards in Post - Midterm 2 - 7 Deck (21):
What are the different theories of gender identity in early childhood?
Social learning theory, cognitive-developmental theory, gender schema theory.
What is social learning theory (on gender identity in early childhood)?
Gender-typing behaviour leads to gender identity.
What is cognitive-developmental theory (on gender identity in early childhood)?
Self-perceptions (gender constancy) come before behaviour.
What is gender schema theory (on gender identity in early childhood)?
Combines social learning and cognitive-developmental theories.
What are Mothers' and childrens use of generic references to gender during storybook conversations?
As the age of the child increases, childrens utterances increase, above mothers. Check graph if you are confused.
How can you reduce gender stereotyping in young children?
Delay exposure to gender-stereotyping. Model non-traditional roles. Encourage mixed-gender activities.
What are the factors in child rearing that encourage health social and emotional development?
Parenting styles - combinations of parenting behaviours, across situations, that create an enduring "rearing climate"
What are the child-rearing styles?
Authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, uninvolved.
What are the characteristics of child-rearing styles?
Acceptance, involvement, control, autonomy. Check graph.
What is the authoritarian style of child rearing?
Produce anxious, unhappy children, low in self-esteem, self-regulation and self-reliance. They have power-assertive control.
What is the permissive style of child rearing?
Parents are either over indulgent or inattentive. Raise impulsive, disobedient and rebellious children who are overly-demanding or dependent and give up easily.
What is the uninvolved style of child rearing?
Neglectful parents. Raise children with poor emotional self-regulation, school achievement and anti-social tendencies.
What makes authoratative child-rearing effective?
Warm, involved parents provide models of caring. Children know that they are competent individuals which foster self esteem and maturity. Encourage powerful sources of resilience.
What are the cultural variations in child rearing: chinese?
Parents are often more controlling.
What are the cultural variations in child rearing: hispanic?
Combine high respect for authority with high parental warmth (loyalty).
What are the cultural variations in child rearing: Low-SES african american?
Parents tend to insist in immediate obedience.
__% of abusive incidents are committed by parents or close caregivers.
What do failures of children rearing result in?
Children with serious learning and adjustment problems; nervous system damage and blunted physiological responses to stress.
What are forms of child maltreatment?
Physical and sexual abuse, neglect, emotional abuse.
What are factors related to child maltreatment?
Parent, child and family characteristics, community, culture.