Flashcards in Post-Midterm 1 Deck (33):
What is experience-expectant growth?
Ordinary experiences "Expected" by brain to grow normally. Occurs early and naturally.
What is experience-dependent growth?
Specific experience, varies widely across cultures. Rushing early learning can overwhelm young brains.
When does sleeping patterns move to an adult-like night and day schedule?
during the first year
When does sleep need to decline?
Sleep needs to decline from 18 to 12 hours a day by age 2.
When do night wakings increase?
Increase between the ages of 1.5 and 2 years, and then decline.
What are sleeping patterns affected by?
Brain development and social environment.
Cosleeping is the norm for __% of the world's population?
What cultural values strongly influence sleeping arrangements?
Cultural values from collectivism versus individualism
What is cosleeping like in the united states?
Increasing, perhaps because more mothers are breastfeeding.
What are three important influences on early growth?
Heredity, nutrition, emotional well-being.
What are the benefits of breastfeeding?
Correct fat-protein balance, nutritionally complete, promotes healthy growth patterns, disease protection, better jaw and tooth development, ensures digestibility, easier transition to solid food.
Are chubby babies at risk for later obesity?
Research shows a relationship between rapid weight gain infancy and later obesity.
What should you do to prevent chubby babies?
Breastfeed for six months, avoid foods loaded with sugar, salt and saturated fats, promote physical exercise, limit TV viewing time.
What are the types of malnutrition?
Marasmus, Kwashiorkor, Iron-deficiency anemia, food insecurity.
What are the consequences of malnutrition?
Physical symptoms, growth and weight problems, poor motor development, learning and attention problems, passivity, irritability, anxiety.
_________ is as vital as food for healthy physical growth.
What happens to infants whose weight, heigh and head circumference are substantially below age-related growth norms?
What can disturb a childs emotional well-being?
Infants are withdrawn and apathetic, often a result of disturbed parent-child relationship, unhappy marriage or parental psychological disturbance may be at fault, may cause lasting cognitive and emotional difficulties.
Psychosocial dwarfism, failure to thrive
textbook I think.
What is a reinforcer?
Increases probability of behaviour occurring again. Presenting desirable stimulus and removing unpleasant stimulus.
What is punishment?
Reduces probability of behaviour occurring again. Presenting an unpleasant stimulus and removing a desirable stimulus.
_________ is a powerful method of learning.
When is it difficult to induce imitation in babies?
More difficult at ages 2 to 3 months old rather than right after birth.
What do mirror neurons do?
Enable us to observe another person's behaviour while simulating that behaviour in our own brain.
What is gross motor development?
Crawling, standing, walking
What is fine motor development?
Reaching and grasping
What are the four factors in each new skill (motor skills as a dynamic system)?
1. CNS develop,met
2. Body's movement capacity
3. Child's goals
4. Environmental supports
How do home environments and infant rearing practices effect motor development?
- Some cultures discourage rapid motor progress
- Kenya and West Indians of Jamaica teach early motor skills
- Western parents consider crawling and "tummy time" essential, but not all cultures do
What are the milestones of reaching?
3-4 months: Reaching with ulnar grasp
4-5 months: Transfer object from hand to hand
9 months: pincer grasp
When is toilet training best delated?
Until the months following their second birthday.
What are effective training techniques for bowel and bladder control?
Establishing regular toiling routines. Using gentle encouragement. Praising children for their effort.
What ages do we see improvements in vision?
2-4 months: focus and colour vision
6 months: acuity, scanning and tracking
6-7 months: depth perception