Post Midterm - 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Post Midterm - 4 Deck (29):
1

What were some developments that happen when Piaget described?

Object search, A-not-B search error, make-believe play

2

What developments appear sooner than Piaget thought?

Object permanence, secondary circular reactions, deferred imitation, problem solving by analogy.

3

What domains of core knowledge that infants are born with?

Physical knowledge, linguistic knowledge, psychological knowledge, numerical knowledge.

4

How does attention look from infancy-toddlerhood?

During the first year, infants pay attention to novel events. During toddlerhood, children become capable of intentional behaviour and sustained attention improves.

5

What does memory research show in operant conditioning research?

Infants' memories increase dramatically during infancy and toddlerhood. Memories move from highly context-dependent to increasingly context-free.

6

What does memory research show in habituation/recovery research?

Infants do not need to be physically active to acquire and retain new information.

7

When can infants engage in recall?

After the first year.

8

What is infantile amnesia and why does it happen?

How we cannot recall events before the age of 3. This may be due to: immature brain development, memory processing in infants is nonverbal, lack of focused self-image.

9

When can infants begin to categorize? And based on what two features?

By 6 months, based on two features: shape and colour.

10

In categorization, earliest categories are __________, but by the second half of the first year, more categories are __________.

perceptual, conceptual.

11

What is Vygotsky's sociocultural theory?

Social contexts (other people) contribute to cognitive development.

12

What is the zone of proximal development?

Tasks child cannot do alone but can learn to do with help.

13

What helps learned at all ages?

Scaffolding

14

What affect mental strategies taught and learned?

Cultural variations.

15

What are the social origins of make-believe play?

Research indicates that make-believe play is a result of readiness and experiences.

16

What does adult participation lead to? (in make-believe play)

Leads to more complex play and teaches cultural values

17

What is an infant intelligence test?

Bayley Scales of Infant Development (The Bayley-III)

18

When is the Bayley Scales of Infant Development used?

Suitable for children between 1 month and 3.5 years.

19

What is included in the Bayley-III?

Scales: cognitive, language, motor, social-emotional, adaptive-behavour.

20

What is the checklist for gathering information about the quality of children's home lives through observation and parental interview?

Measured during the first three years, extent to which parents talk with children is especially important, predicts language, IQ and academic achievement.

21

What are the elements of developmentally appropriate child care?

Responsive, interactive, well-trained caregivers. Clean, safe, uncrowded indoor spaces. Appropriate toys, stored within reach. Safe equipment. Low teacher-child ratios. Flexible daily schedule. Warm atmosphere. Parents welcome anytime.

22

What are the three theories of language development?

Behaviourist, Nativist, interactionist.

23

What is the behaviourist theory of language development?

Learned through operant conditioning (reinforcement) and imitation.

24

What is the nativist theory of language development?

Inborn language acquisition device (LAD) biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language.

25

What is the interactionist theory of language development?

Inner capacities and environment work together; social context is important.

26

What is broker's area?

Supports grammatical processing and language production.

27

What is Wernicke's area?

Plays role in comprehending word meaning.

28

What are the recent developments in the interactionist perspective?

Recent ideas about language development emphasize interactions between inner capacities and environmental influences.

29

What are the two theories in the interactionist perspective of language development?

Information-processing perspective and social interaction.