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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (23):

What is the sensitive period?

An optimal time for certain capacities to emerge. The individual is especially response to environment. Boundaries are less clearly defined than a critical period.


What is Vygotskys sociocultural theory?

See document/textbook


What does Vygotskys sociocultural theory emphasize?

Transmission of CULTURE to the new generation. And that social interaction is vital for cognitive development (dialogues with more knowledgable members of society).


What is the ecological systems theory?

See in textbook/ document. (know the levels, meso, exo, macro, etc).


What is the dynamic systems perspective?

See textbook/ document.


What is a hypothesis?

Prediction drawn directly from a theory.


What are research designs?

Overall plans for research studies.


Know the designs:

Correlational, experimental


What are the two types of systematic observation?

Naturalistic and structured.


What is naturalistic observation?

In the "field" or natural environment where behaviour happens.


What is structured observation?

Laboratory situation set up to evoke behaviour of interest. All participants have equal chance to display behaviour.


What are case studies?

Brings together a wide range of information, including interviews, observations and test scores. Best used to study unique types. May be subjective.


What is a clinical interview?

Flexible, conversational style. Probes for participant's point of view. May not be accurate.


What is the structured interview?

Each participant is asked the same questions in the same way. May use questionnaires to get answers. Not as in-depth.


Do immigrant children adapt well?

Yes. The experience is not problem-free, but supervision, community and family cohesion help for success.


What is a correlational design?

Researchers gather information and make no effort to alter their experiences. Limited because cause and effect cannot be inferred.


Correlation coefficients: What is the magnitude of the number?

Indicates the strength of the relationship. Size of the number between 1 and 0. Closer to 1 (positive or negative) is a stronger relationship.


Correlation coefficients: What is the sign of the number (+ or -)?

Indicates the direction of the relationship. Positive (+) means as one variable increases, so does the other. Negative (-) means as one variable increases, the other decreases.


What are the two modified experiments in research?

Field and Natural experiments.


What are field experiments?

Use rare opportunities for random assignment in natural settings.


What are natural experiments?

Compare differences in treatment that already exist. Groups are chosen to match characteristics as much as possible.


Can musical experience enhance intelligence?

"Mozart effect." Must be long-lasting and participatory to provide lasting gains. Other enrichment activities may produce similar gains.


What are children's research rights?

1. Protection from harm.
2. Informed consent.
3. Privacy.
4. Knowledge of results.
5. Beneficial treatments.