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Flashcards in Final 5 Deck (25):
1

What is industry (Eriksons theory)?

Developing a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks. School provides many opportunities. Cooperation and moral responsibility.

2

What is Inferiority (Eriksons theory)?

Pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability yo do things well. Family environments, teachers, and peers, can contribute to negative feelings.

3

What is self-understanding?

Stable psychological internal dispositions.

4

What is self-concept like in middle childhood?

More refined self-concept. Social comparisons on appearance, abilities and behaviour. More emphasis on competencies, both positive and negative.

5

Cognitive development affects _________ of self-concept.

Structure.

6

In middle childhood, they adopt perspective-taking, what is this?

Adopting a view of self that resembles others attitudes toward oneself. Leads to use of traits.

7

What do social and cultural development affect?

Content of the self-concept.

8

What is the real self?

"How I measure up to expectations"

9

What is the ideal self?

"What expectations from others and self, I internalize"

10

What are two influences on self concept?

Cognitive - Reasoning, experiences, behaviours.
Social - Parental support, peer social groups, look for more extra-familial expectations.
Cultural - varies between cultures.

11

How do different cultural values influence self-concept?(asian, western, collectivist cultures)

Asian - harmonious interdependence.
Western - independence and self-assertion.
Collectivist cultures - group social traits

12

What is self-esteem like in middle childhood?

Hierarchically structured. Separate areas and general self-esteem. Perceived physical appearance is an important factor.

13

What factor is correlated with self esteem in middle childhood?

Perceived physical appearance.

14

What is self-esteem like in middle childhood?

Drops in the first few years in school, then rises. In preschool - they hear that they are the "best." At grade 4 - starts to balance sources of information: strength and weaknesses.

15

What leads to personal relevance? (development of self-esteem)

Gradual strengthening of positive relationships among self-esteem, valuing of certain activities and success at those activities. This leads to personal relevance.

16

What leads to well-adjusted, sociable and conscientious children?

High self-esteem.

17

How does culture influence self-esteem?

Soem encourage more social comparison which leads to lower self esteem.

18

How does gender-stereotyped beliefs influence self-esteem?

Some are stronger (e.g., stereotype threat can damage self esteem.)

19

How do child-rearing practices influence self-esteem?

Authoritative parenting builds self-esteem. Controlling parenting harms self-esteem.

20

What are attributions? (attribution theory)

Common everyday explanations for causes of behaviour. (luck, ability, effort)

21

What are components (2) of attributions of achievement?

Mastery-oriented, learned helplessness.

22

What is the mastery-oriented attribution?

Attribute success to ability. Incremental view of ability and can improve by trying or changing. Focus on learning.

23

What is the learned helplessness attribution?

Attribute failure to low ability, success and luck. Fixed view of ability and it cannot be changed. Focus on performance goals.

24

What values affect children's development of learned helplessness?

Culture. Asian parents attend more to failure than success (needing correction). American parents focus more on success.

25

How can you prevent learned helplessness?

Select meaningful and appropriate tasks, communicate warmth and confidence in the child's ability, make evaluations private, offer small classes with individualized support, accommodate individual and cultural learning differences, emphasize individual progress.