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Flashcards in Final 7 Deck (19):

What are the in-group and out-group biases? (development of prejudice)

In-group favouritism, out-group prejudice, out-group favouritism.


What are factors that affect the extent children hold radical and ethnic biases?

A fixed view of personality traits, overly high self-esteem, and a social world in which people are sorted into groups.


What is the development of important relationships? In middle childhood

Peer groups become more important. Collective group generates feedback about values and ways to be treated increase in important (e.g., leaders and followers). These relationships also work out verbal and relational aggression.


How are peer groups formed in middle childhood?

Formed from proximity and similarity. They adopt similar dress and behaviour.


What is peer culture like ages in middle childhood?

Relational aggression, exclusion (in/out group), church, teams, etc.


What are friendships like in middle childhood?

Personal qualities like trust become key. More selective in choosing friends. Friendships can last several years. Influence each other's behaviour.


How do friendships become more complex and psychological in middle childhood?

Increased affection, rupture, repair, honesty, compassion, etc. Friendships also expand bases of similarity, age, race, ethnicity, SES, personality, etc.


What is peer likability?

Extent to which a child is viewed by age-mates as a worthy social partner.


How is peer likability measured?

Self reports of social preferences (who is liked/disliked) and prominence (who is admired).


How does peer likability relate to psychological adjustment?

Predicts current and future psychological adjustment.


What are peer acceptance categories (in research)?

Popular (prosocial, antisocial), neglected, controversial (positive and negative), rejected (rejected-aggressive, rejected-withdrawn).


What are the prosocial types of popularity?

Academically and socially competent, generally well-liked.


What are the anti-social types of popularity?

Tough boys/girls who get attention by being relationally or physically aggressive. Some like this, others might be wary.


What is the neglected category?

Did not get noticed much but are surprisingly well-adjusted. They "wait to play their cards." Usually they eventually become popular.


What is the controversial category?

Hostile and disruptive but can be pro-social and positive. Changes can happen depending on whom they interact with at the moment.


What is the rejected category?

Aggressive type - high conflict, hyperactive, inattentive and impulsive behaviours.
Withdrawn type - passive, socially awkward and socially anxious.


What percentage of children are bullies, and what percentage are victims of bullying?

10%-20% are bullies, about 15%-30% are victimized.


What does victimization from bullying lead to?

Adjustment problems, depression, loneliness, low self-esteem, and poor school performance.


What is the best way to reduce bullying?

Change youth environments. Promote prosocial behaviours.