Flashcards in Post Midterm 2 - 3 Deck (21):
What is the relationship of private speech to task difficulty among 5 and 6 year olds?
Highest rate of private speech in moderate task difficulty. Lowest rate in very difficult tasks - they just give up.
What are the social origins of early childhood cognitions?
Intersubjectivity, scaffolding, guided participation
What is intersubjectivity?
A process which two participants come together with a shared meaning. Shared understand and cooperativeness.
What is scaffolding?
Helping each other to get toward an understanding
Vygotskian classrooms promote assisted discovery, what is this?
Teachers guide childrens learning with explanations and verbal prompts. Peer collaboration is also emphasized.
What are the challenges to vygotskys theory?
Verbal communication is not the only way new information is mastered. The theory says little about how basic motor, perception, attention, memory and problem solving skills contribute to higher cognitive processes.
What happens in western culture to participate in adult work?
School prepares children for work. Parents focus on preparing children for school success. Child-focused activities.
What happens in village/tribal culture to participate in adult work?
Little schooling. Children observe adults at work to learn, and assume responsibilities early. Children make more decisions for themselves. Limited play and scaffolding.
When does sustained attention increase?
Between 2 and 3.5 years.
Why does sustained attention increase between ages 2 and 3.5 years?
- Frontal lobe growth
- Increasingly complex play goals
- Adult scaffolding
- Quality pre-schooling
What is memory like in early childhood?
Recognition is better than recall.
What limits the beginnings of new memory strategies?
Limited by working memory
Familiar events remembered are called _______.
How do scripts change with time? (as the child gets older)
More elaborate, adults help with autobiographical memory.
What is autobiographical memory?
Episode-like memories about oneself. Personally meaningful events that become chronological.
What is the overlapping waves theory?
Try a variety of strategies of problem solving. Observe how well they work and gradually select those leading to rapid, accurate answers.
What is the theory of mind?
coherent set of ideas about mental activities (metacognition).
What are the milestones of theory of mind? (metacognition)
Age 1 - view others as intentional beings who are available to communication.
Age 2 - aware of others emotions and desires
Age 3 - realize that thinking is internal, but focus on desires
Age 4 - realize both beliefs and desires determine behaviour, awareness of false beliefs
Factors contributing to preschoolers' theory of mind?
Language and verbal reasoning, cognitive skills, make-believe play, social interaction.
Preschoolers ____________ occurs before ________ ______.
Understanding, practical usage.