Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (41):
What are the domains of development?
Physical, cognitive, social and emotional
What are the periods of development?
Prenatal, Infancy and toddlerhood, early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence and emerging adulthood.
What age is prenatal?
Conception to birth
What age is infancy and toddlerhood?
Birth - 2 years
What age is early childhood?
2 - 6 years
What age is middle childhood?
6 - 11 years
What age is adolescence?
11 - 18 years
What age is emerging adulthood?
18 - 25 years
What is the physical domain of development?
Changes in body size and proportions, appearance, functioning of body systems, health, perceptual and motor capacities.
What is the cognitive domain of development?
What is the emotional and social domain of development?
Emotional communication, self-understanding, knowledge about others, interpersonal skills and relationships.
What is a theory?
An orderly, integrated set of statements that: describes behaviour, explains behaviour and predicts behaviour.
What are basic issues in development? (3)
1. Is development continuous or discontinuous?
2. Is there one course of development or many possible courses?
3. Relative influence of nature and nurture?
What is nature? (development)
Inborn, biologic givens based on genetic inheritance
What is nurture? (development)
Physical and social world. Influences biological and psychological development.
What is stability? (stability vs plasticity)
Individuals high or low in a characteristic remain so at later age. Early experience may have a lifelong impact.
What is plasticity? (stability vs plasticity)
Change is possible, based on experiences.
When you look for resilience in children, what factors do you look at?
1. Personal characteristics
2. A warm parental relationship
3. Social support outside of the immediate family
4. Community resources and opportunities
What were the historical views of childhood: Medieval era?
Childhood (7 or 8) regarded as separate phase with special needs and protections
What were the historical views of childhood: 16th century?
Puritan "child depravity" views
What were the historical views of childhood: 17th century?
John Locke "tabula rasa" or "blank slate" view; continuous development
What were the historical views of childhood: 18th century?
Rousseau: "noble savages" view; natural maturation.
What is evolutionary theory?
Darwin's ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest are still influential.
What is the normative approach?
Age-related averages based on measurements of large numbers of children.
What is mental testing movement?
Binet & Simon: Early developers of intelligence tests.
What are Freud's three parts of the personality?
Id, Ego and Superego
What is the Id?
Largest portion of the mind, unconscious and present at birth. Source of biological needs and desires.
What is the ego?
Conscious, rational part of the mine. Emerges in early infancy. Redirects id impulses acceptably.
What is the superego?
The conscience. Develops from ages 3-6, from interactions with caregivers.
What are Freud's psychosexual stages?
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
What is classical conditioning?
Stimulus - Response
What is operant conditioning?
Reinforces and punishments
What is the social-cognitive approach?
Modeling and self-efficacy.
What are the three components to social learning theory?
Modeling or observational learning, cognition and personal standards.
What is modelling or observational learning?
E.g. baby claps her hands after her mother does.
What are personal standards (in social learning theory)?
Children being to believe their own abilities will help them.
What is behaviour modification?
Combines conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviours and increase desirable responses. E.g., encourage children to go to school by giving them candies at the end of the day.
What are the limitations of behaviourism and social learning theory?
1. Too narrow a view of important environmental influences.
2. Bandura's work is unique in that it grants children an active role in their learning.
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
PUT IN CHARTS
How are neuroscientists involved in development?
Trying to identify the types of experiences that support or undermine brain development.