Flashcards in Final 9 Deck (26):
What is the relationship with the parents like in middle childhood?
Gradually decline in time spent with parents. Gradual shift of control from parent to child.
What are important features of siblings?
Source of social support, rivalry, companionship and assistance.
Are only children advantageous in self-esteem and academic achievement?
What are the types of families?
Traditional (less than 7%), gay and lesbian, single, divorced, blended, extended, one-child.
Are there differences for families with gay and lesbian parents?
Not much research, but what is there suggests that children do not differ in mental health, peer relations, gender identity etc. They may suffer from negative stereotypes.
Why are there single parents?
Never married, women in high status careers, ethnicity differences, low SES, no father involvement.
What is important to do with families with single parents?
Strengthen social support, education and employment oppurtunities.
Who has the highest international divorce rates?
U.S., U.K., Denmark, Germany.
Who has the lowest international divorce rates?
Italy, Spain, Australia
What percentage of people marry again after divorce?
What has been found with children who experience the end of their parents marriage?
Great individual differences in effects of divorce that ends in a struggle.
How do children react to divorce?
Most react with distress and anger due to disorganized and insecure life circumstances.
What percentage of children display severe responses to divorce?
What are important factors in divorce (on children)?
Pre existing coping strategies, temperament, attachment security, self esteem, social competence, emotional regulation, healthy contact with both parents
What are the immediate consequences of parental divorce?
Instability, conflict, drop in income, parental stress, disorganization.
What are long term consequences of parental divorce?
Improved adjustment after 2 years, boys and children with difficult temperaments are more likely to have problems, fathers involvement affects adjustment.
How do young children typically react to divorce?
Blame themselves, and have more anxiety and fear.
How do school age children react to divorce?
Strongly and are the angriest.
How do children with difficult temperaments react to divorce?
Are often targets of parental anger and get neglected.
In mother custody families, what is found in research about boys?
Boys are slightly more at risk for serious adjustment problems. Key is effective parenting.
How are children from divorced families difference than non-divorced families? (Research findings)
Continue to score slightly lower than non-divorced in academics, self-esteem, social competence, emotional/behavioural adjustment
The more parental contact and the warmer the relationship... the....?
The less children react with defiance and aggression.
Remaining in high conflict but intact families _____ __ _____ than family transition.
Might be worse.
How can we help families through divorce?
Divorce mediation, parent education programs, joint custody, child support, 2 households are not cheaper than 1.
In blended families, mother-stepfather, how do the children react?
Most frequent, boys adjust quickly, girls adapt less favourably. Older children and adolescents of both sexes display more problems than non-step families.