Lecture 11: Avian Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 11: Avian Anatomy Deck (59):
0

Which aortic arch develops in birds?

right aortic arch

1

Birds see with which part of their brain?

Midbrain. Objects must be moving in relation to bird in order for them to see it.

2

The premaxilla is present in birds, but absent in mammals

:)

3

How do the nasal and oral cavities communicate in the bird?

via the choana

4

fx of craniofacial hinge

allows birds to literally unhinge their beak. A synovial joint, well developed in psittacines.

5

major sinus in birds

infraorbital sinus

6

bird vertebral formula

C14 T7 (L-S)14 Cd6.

7

What allows for significant head rotation in birds?

single occipital condyle

8

fx of the notarium

fused in thoracic region to provide stability during wing downbeat

9

synsacrum

the fused lumbosacral area

10

pygostyle

the last vertebra; where the tail feathers attach

11

compare sternal ribs in birds vs. costal cartilage in mammals

sternal ribs have ossified, whereas they are cartilaginous in mammals

12

pectoral girdle is comprised of:

scapula, clavicle, and coracoid bones

13

What structures push the wings OUT/act as struts?

clavicle and coracoid bones

14

the dorsal wall of the thorax is formed by the:

notarium

15

the lateral wall of the thorax is formed by the:

ribs

16

fx of uncinate processes of bird ribs

project caudally from each rib to overlap the succeeding rib. Overlap provides stability and allows for expansion during inspiration/expiration

17

ventral wall of thorax formed by:

sternum

18

fx of keel

supports the abdominal viscera and provides attachment to the large flight muscles

19

major m. that elevates the wing*

deep pectoral m.

20

major m. that compresses the wing during the downbeat*

superficial pectoral m.

21

fx of clavicles

act as struts or springs that hold wings away from midline

22

how does humerus of birds differ from mammals?

contains a large air sac extension through a pneumatic foramen

23

where do secondary flight feathers attach?

ulna

24

Name the 2 bones of the bird carpus. Why only 2?

ulnar and radial carpals. No concussion absorption necessary in the bird forelimb

25

where do primary flight feathers attach?

carpometacarpus

26

carpometacarpus in birds is comprised of which bones?

fused metacarpals II, III, and IV and distal row of carpal bones

27

which digits are present in birds?

II, III, IV

28

fx of antitrochanter of ilium

allows birds to stand on 1 leg

29

What forms the sciatic foramen? What passes through this foramen?

Ischium. sciatic n. and a. pass through it

30

fx of unfused pubis bones

allows for passage of eggs in females

31

Major flight muscles

superficial and deep pectoral mm.

32

longest bone of pelvic limb

tibiotarsus. Results from fusion of the tibia with the prox. row of tarsal bones

33

tarsometatarsus results from fusion of which bones?

distal row of tarsal bones and metatarsal bones II, III, IV

34

hock joint is formed by articulation b/w which 2 bones?

tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus

35

which digit is directed caudally in birds? How many phalanges does it have?

digit I. Has 3 phalanges

36

origin, insertion, and function of the superficial pec

O: keel/clavicle/sternal ribs
I: humerus
Fx: wing "downbeat" caused by adduction and depression of the wing

37

Origin, Insertion, Action of deep pectoral m.

O: sternum
I: humerus (via a tendon which travels through the foramen triosseum)
A: abduction/elevation of wing

38

"The triceps and extensor carpi radialis muscles and the radial n. are as important to flight in the bird as they are to limb support and locomotion in mammals."

:)

39

propatagium

the "wing membrane." Has small patagial muscles which pull on the membrane to change it's shape. VERY important for flight

40

pineoning procedure

resecets part of the extensor carpi radialis m. so the bird can't fly

41

Unique to birds: a sciatic artery that runs with the sciatic n.

:)

42

venipuncture performed in R or L jugular vein?

R

43

the caudal portion of the larynx is called the:

syrinx

44

How are vocal sounds produced in birds?

by vibration of the lateral and medial walls of the membranous proximal bronchii

45

cartilages of the cranial portion of the larynx of birds

dual cricoid and arytenoid

46

Why is there no separation of the coelomic (body cavity in birds?

No diaphragm to separate coelomic cavity into thoracic and abdominal cavities

47

fx of air sacs

store air and promote complete filling of the passive lungs

48

Where are air sacs located?

thoracic and abdominal cavities, pneumatic spaces of several bones. They all connect directly with the secondary bronchii

49

crop

diverticulum of the esophagus (normally on the R side) which functions as a storage organ for ingested food and as a source of "crop millk"

50

fx of gizzard

grinds up food material b/c birds don't have teeth/lips. synonymous with ventriculus

51

which organ surrounds the pancreas in birds?

duodenum

52

the colon extends from ___ to ____

from ileum to cloaca

53

cloaca

common junction of the digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts

54

Do birds have a urethra?

no

55

vent is to birds as ___ is to mammals

anus

56

coprodeum

cranial portion of the cloaca that receives the colon

57

urodeum

middle portion of cloaca that receives the ureters and repro tracts

58

proctodeum

caudal portion of the cloaca that receives the duct of the cloacal bursa (bursa of fabricius)

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