Flashcards in Plasma Proteins Deck (121):
red blood cells
white blood cells
fx of erythrocytes
oxygen and CO2 transport and H+ binding
fx of leukocytes (2)
1) phagocytosis and killing of microbes
2) cellular and humoral immunity
4 functions of plasma
1) transport of nutrients
2) transport of by-products and waste
3) transportation of cells
4) maintain homeostasis (pH, temp, etc.)
fx of platelets
hemostasis. Inflammation to a lesser extent. Have filopodia when activated
Which animals normally have colorless plasma?
dogs, cats, pigs and sheep
Which animals have the highest percentage blood volume as a percent of body weight? Lowest?
Highest --> "hot-blood horses", animals with large spleens, very young animals
Lowest --> pigs (due to large fat content)Col
Which animals normally have straw-colored plasma? Why?
Horses and cattle. Bilirubin and carotenoids cause color change
What can happen to plasma appearance postprandial?
Plasma vs. serum
Plasma --> fluid in which blood cells circulate
Serum --> fluid obtained following centrifugation if blood is collected without anticoagulant and allowed to clot
Plasma protein concentrations higher or lower at birth?
Total dissolved solids present in solution is proportional to?
The bending (refraction) of light as it passes through the sample
2 main classes of plasma proteins
2) globulins (all others that are not albumin)
What cell has lowest concentration on blood?
white blood cells (except for dog
Order platelets, RBCs and WBCs by order of greatest number in blood
# RBCs > # platelets > # WBCs
Most common plasma protein
3 types of globulins
alpha, beta, gamma
Most common type of white blood cell in blood?
Which blood cells are nucleated in mammals?
white blood cells only
Which blood cells are nucleated in non-mammals?
All blood cells (including RBCs, WBCs, platelets)
About what percentage of blood is plasma?
Specific protein components of serum
Specific protein components of plasma
Albumin, globulins, fibrinogen
Composition of plasma
water, salts, proteins, hormones, metabolites, etc.
Cold vs. hot blooded horses
Cold --> draft horses (have lower blood volume)
Hot --> i.e. race horses (have higher blood volume)
What is the most dense blood cell type?
What does buffy coat contain in microhematocrit tube?
Do mammals or reptiles have a higher mean packed cell volume?
How do greyhounds compare to other dogs in regards to mean HCT?
They have a high HCT (54% vs. 45% for normal dogs)
What does a large buffy coat usually indicate?
What does low/no buffy usually indicate?
low white cell count (leukopenia)
high lipid in the blood
compares the amt. of bilirubin in the blood as determined by comparing the color of a sample of test serum with a set of color standards
What makes plasma yellow?
destruction of red blood cells
high bilirubin lvl in blood
How does fasting effect plasma color?
makes plasma more yellow because of increased bilirubin
least dense glycoprotein
chylomicron. Can build up in lipemia and cause a top white lipid layer in HCT tube
Collective properties of serum and plasma
1) Transport (nutrients, hormones, waste, drugs)
2) Colloid osmotic effects
How does EDTA work as an anticoagulant?
Binds Ca that's needed for coagulation
Are coagulant factors still present in uncoagulated blood?
What cells are present in a blood clot?
platelets, coagulant factors, RBCs, (WBCs??)
What protein is most common in blood clot?
fibrinogen (coagulant factor I)
Why is protein content lower in serum than plasma?
Fibrinogen has been removed
What does serum LACK that plasma has?
fibrinogen and platelets
colloid osmotic effect
tendency of protein to pull water towards it (osmotic pressure of proteins)
total plasma protein
neonate vs. adult TPP concentrations?
Neonate 4-6 g/dL (increases with collostrum and weaning)
Adult 6-8 g/dL
What does a refractometer measure?
solids (mainly protein) content by looking at how much light is bent
How do you calculate total globulins?
Total protein - albumin
In electrophoresis, proteins are loaded in which pole and move to which pole? Which protein usually travels the farthest?
Move towards the positive pole. Albumin moves furthest because it is small and negatively charged
Does albumin contain a lot or a little of carbohydrate?
little (small peak on carbohydrate stain)
Which stain (protein, carb, or lipid) has the least separation?
Most important protein in regulating osmotic pressure? Why?
Albumin. It comprises half the total protein content in blood and is a small molecule, therefore there are a lot of albumin molecules in blood. Osmotic pressure is most influenced by the number of molecules present, so albumin has a great effect.
What does albumin transport? (6)
1) organic and inorganic substances
2) cations (most Ca++)
5) poorly soluble drugs
6) toxic substances
low albumin in the blood
accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. Due to low albumin caused by damaged liver, which normally produces plasma proteins. Also leads to overload of iron in liver
alpha1-acid glycoprotein fx (1)
alpha1-protease inhibitor (alpha1-antitrypsin) fx (3)
1) inhibits proteases released during inflammation
2) inhibits certain coagulation factors
3) inhibits digestive enzymes
alpha2-macroglobulin fx (3)
1) inhibits proteases released during inflammation
2) inhibits pancreatic proteolytic enzymes
3) inhibits certain coagulation factors
Antithrombin fx (1)
1) inhibits thrombin/other coagulation factors
*requires GAGs (i.e. heparin) for optimal activity*
Ceruloplasmin fx (3)
1) transports copper
2) plasma antioxidant
3) facilitates oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron
1) Binds and transports iron
*Correlates with TIBC* (more transferrin = greater ability to bind/transport iron)
Total iron-binding capacity
contains iron and correlates with total body iron stores. Low concentrations in plasma
Haptoglobin fx (3)
1) binds plasma Hb
2) prevents loss of free Hb
A positive acute phase protein and example
protein that increases conc. with inflammation. Ex: haptoglobin
What region do hormone binding proteins typically migrate on electrophoresis? What do they bind?
Alpha region. Bind small MW hormones and prevent them from being rapidly filtered by the kidney
scaffolding for inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells (allows for optimal platelet formation)
Aggregation vs. adhesion
Aggregation = platelets binding eachother
Adhesion = platelets binding something else
Precursor to fibrin
Fibrinogen on electrophoresis
between beta and gamma region
IgG on electrophoresis
mostly in gamma region
IgM on electrophoresis
in both beta and gamma regions
IgA on electrophoresis
mostly in beta region
How does IgG change before and after birth?
Only present after intake of collostrum. Then slowly declines until offspring's immune system takes over and starts producing it's own IgG
Polyclonal hyperglobulinemia is characterized by:
Multiple blood proteins elevated
Monoclonal hyperglobulinemia is char. by:
a single blood protein is elevated
Cause of monoclonal hyperglobulinemia
neoplastic plasma cells in bone marrow that are producing a single protein
protein containing significant amounts of carbohydrates
Where are lipoproteins synthesized?
GI and liver
transport of water insoluble lipids in blood
What is the protein component in lipoprotein known as?
2 components of lipoproteins
1) High MW water miscible lipids
Form pseudomicellar particles
High density lipoprotein
low density lipoprotein
very low density lipoprotein
high concentration of phospholipid --> density of lipoprotein
high concentration of triglyceride --> density of lipoprotein
high conc. of protein --> density of lipoprotein
What do chylomicrons have a higher concentration of compared to other lipoproteins?
Triglycerides (this is why they are the least dense)
Where are chylomicrons formed?
Duodenum and jejunum following digestion of fat.
transport dietary lipids
transport hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol
transport cholesterol to tissue ("bad cholesterol")
transport cholesterol out of tissue back to liver ("good cholesterol")
Relationship between size and density of lipoproteins
Inverse relationship. As size increases, density decreases. Chylomicrons have the greatest size but lowest density (HDL the reverse)
In which species are chylomicrons absent?
herbivores (due to low fat diet)
How do chylomicrons enter circulation?
lipoprotein lipase fx
hydrolyzes triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol in capillary beds
white cloudy plasma because of chylomicronemia after eating
How are chylomicrons hydrolyzed?
Via lipoprotein lipase. Have a short half life
Where are VLDLs synthesized?
What are most VLDLs transformed into when degraded?
Evidence of VLDL in HCT tube
plasma remains milky
Major mechanism by which cholesterol is transported to peripheral tissues
fx of cholesterol in tissues
1) component of cell membranes
2) formation of steroid hormones
Most dense lipoproteins
Where are HDL precursors formed?
Where is HDL formed?
reverse cholesterol transport
process by which HDL transports cholesterol from tissue back to liver
Why is atherosclerosis common in humans but rare in domestic animals?
Domestic animals have a higher concentration of HDLs than humans
Why do cats have naturally high HDLs?
They are adapted to eating a high fat diet
% blood volume in very young animals
% blood volume in hot blooded horses
% blood volume in cold blooded horses, cats, and rodents
% blood volume in dogs
% blood volume in pigs