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Flashcards in Plasma Proteins Deck (121):
0

erythrocyes =

red blood cells

1

leukocytes =

white blood cells

2

fx of erythrocytes

oxygen and CO2 transport and H+ binding

4

fx of leukocytes (2)

1) phagocytosis and killing of microbes
2) cellular and humoral immunity

5

4 functions of plasma

1) transport of nutrients
2) transport of by-products and waste
3) transportation of cells
4) maintain homeostasis (pH, temp, etc.)

6

fx of platelets

hemostasis. Inflammation to a lesser extent. Have filopodia when activated

7

Which animals normally have colorless plasma?

dogs, cats, pigs and sheep

8

Which animals have the highest percentage blood volume as a percent of body weight? Lowest?

Highest --> "hot-blood horses", animals with large spleens, very young animals
Lowest --> pigs (due to large fat content)Col

9

Which animals normally have straw-colored plasma? Why?

Horses and cattle. Bilirubin and carotenoids cause color change

10

What can happen to plasma appearance postprandial?

Become lipemic

11

Plasma vs. serum

Plasma --> fluid in which blood cells circulate
Serum --> fluid obtained following centrifugation if blood is collected without anticoagulant and allowed to clot

12

Plasma protein concentrations higher or lower at birth?

lower

13

Total dissolved solids present in solution is proportional to?

The bending (refraction) of light as it passes through the sample

14

2 main classes of plasma proteins

1) albumin
2) globulins (all others that are not albumin)

15

What cell has lowest concentration on blood?

white blood cells (except for dog

16

Order platelets, RBCs and WBCs by order of greatest number in blood

# RBCs > # platelets > # WBCs

17

Most common plasma protein

albumin

18

3 types of globulins

alpha, beta, gamma

19

Most common type of white blood cell in blood?

neutrophils

20

Which blood cells are nucleated in mammals?

white blood cells only

21

Which blood cells are nucleated in non-mammals?

All blood cells (including RBCs, WBCs, platelets)

22

About what percentage of blood is plasma?

55%

23

Specific protein components of serum

Albumin, globulins

24

Specific protein components of plasma

Albumin, globulins, fibrinogen

25

Composition of plasma

water, salts, proteins, hormones, metabolites, etc.

26

Cold vs. hot blooded horses

Cold --> draft horses (have lower blood volume)
Hot --> i.e. race horses (have higher blood volume)

27

What is the most dense blood cell type?

RBC

28

What does buffy coat contain in microhematocrit tube?

leukocytes, platelets

29

Do mammals or reptiles have a higher mean packed cell volume?

Mammals

30

How do greyhounds compare to other dogs in regards to mean HCT?

They have a high HCT (54% vs. 45% for normal dogs)

31

What does a large buffy coat usually indicate?

high leukocytes

32

What does low/no buffy usually indicate?

low white cell count (leukopenia)

33

lipemia

high lipid in the blood

34

icterus index

compares the amt. of bilirubin in the blood as determined by comparing the color of a sample of test serum with a set of color standards

35

What makes plasma yellow?

bilirubin

36

hemolysis

destruction of red blood cells

37

hyperbilirubemia

high bilirubin lvl in blood

38

How does fasting effect plasma color?

makes plasma more yellow because of increased bilirubin

39

least dense glycoprotein

chylomicron. Can build up in lipemia and cause a top white lipid layer in HCT tube

40

Collective properties of serum and plasma

1) Transport (nutrients, hormones, waste, drugs)
2) Colloid osmotic effects
3) acid-bas
4) immunity
5) hemostasis

41

How does EDTA work as an anticoagulant?

Binds Ca that's needed for coagulation

42

Are coagulant factors still present in uncoagulated blood?

Yes

43

What cells are present in a blood clot?

platelets, coagulant factors, RBCs, (WBCs??)

44

What protein is most common in blood clot?

fibrinogen (coagulant factor I)

45

Why is protein content lower in serum than plasma?

Fibrinogen has been removed

46

What does serum LACK that plasma has?

fibrinogen and platelets

47

colloid osmotic effect

tendency of protein to pull water towards it (osmotic pressure of proteins)

48

hemostasis

stop bleeding

49

TPP =

total plasma protein

50

neonate vs. adult TPP concentrations?

Neonate 4-6 g/dL (increases with collostrum and weaning)
Adult 6-8 g/dL

51

What does a refractometer measure?

solids (mainly protein) content by looking at how much light is bent

52

How do you calculate total globulins?

Total protein - albumin

53

In electrophoresis, proteins are loaded in which pole and move to which pole? Which protein usually travels the farthest?

Move towards the positive pole. Albumin moves furthest because it is small and negatively charged

54

Does albumin contain a lot or a little of carbohydrate?

little (small peak on carbohydrate stain)

55

Which stain (protein, carb, or lipid) has the least separation?

lipid

56

Most important protein in regulating osmotic pressure? Why?

Albumin. It comprises half the total protein content in blood and is a small molecule, therefore there are a lot of albumin molecules in blood. Osmotic pressure is most influenced by the number of molecules present, so albumin has a great effect.

57

What does albumin transport? (6)

1) organic and inorganic substances
2) cations (most Ca++)
3) metabolites
4) hormones
5) poorly soluble drugs
6) toxic substances

58

hypoalbuminemia

low albumin in the blood

59

ascites

accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. Due to low albumin caused by damaged liver, which normally produces plasma proteins. Also leads to overload of iron in liver

60

alpha1-acid glycoprotein fx (1)

binds drugs

61

alpha1-protease inhibitor (alpha1-antitrypsin) fx (3)

1) inhibits proteases released during inflammation
2) inhibits certain coagulation factors
3) inhibits digestive enzymes

62

alpha2-macroglobulin fx (3)

1) inhibits proteases released during inflammation
2) inhibits pancreatic proteolytic enzymes
3) inhibits certain coagulation factors

63

Antithrombin fx (1)

1) inhibits thrombin/other coagulation factors
*requires GAGs (i.e. heparin) for optimal activity*

64

Ceruloplasmin fx (3)

1) transports copper
2) plasma antioxidant
3) facilitates oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron

65

Transferrin fx

1) Binds and transports iron
*Correlates with TIBC* (more transferrin = greater ability to bind/transport iron)

66

TIBC

Total iron-binding capacity

67

Ferritin

contains iron and correlates with total body iron stores. Low concentrations in plasma

68

Haptoglobin fx (3)

1) binds plasma Hb
2) prevents loss of free Hb
3) Antioxidant

69

A positive acute phase protein and example

protein that increases conc. with inflammation. Ex: haptoglobin

70

What region do hormone binding proteins typically migrate on electrophoresis? What do they bind?

Alpha region. Bind small MW hormones and prevent them from being rapidly filtered by the kidney

71

Fibrinogen fx

scaffolding for inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells (allows for optimal platelet formation)

72

Aggregation vs. adhesion

Aggregation = platelets binding eachother
Adhesion = platelets binding something else

73

Precursor to fibrin

fibrinogen

74

Fibrinogen on electrophoresis

between beta and gamma region

75

IgG on electrophoresis

mostly in gamma region

76

IgM on electrophoresis

in both beta and gamma regions

77

IgA on electrophoresis

mostly in beta region

78

How does IgG change before and after birth?

Only present after intake of collostrum. Then slowly declines until offspring's immune system takes over and starts producing it's own IgG

79

Polyclonal hyperglobulinemia is characterized by:

Multiple blood proteins elevated

80

Monoclonal hyperglobulinemia is char. by:

a single blood protein is elevated

81

Cause of monoclonal hyperglobulinemia

neoplastic plasma cells in bone marrow that are producing a single protein

82

glycoprotein

protein containing significant amounts of carbohydrates

83

Where are lipoproteins synthesized?

GI and liver

84

lipoprotein fx

transport of water insoluble lipids in blood

85

What is the protein component in lipoprotein known as?

Apoliprotein

86

2 components of lipoproteins

1) High MW water miscible lipids
2) apolipoproteins

Form pseudomicellar particles

87

HDL =

High density lipoprotein

88

LDL =

low density lipoprotein

89

VLDL =

very low density lipoprotein

90

high concentration of phospholipid --> density of lipoprotein

increases

91

high concentration of triglyceride --> density of lipoprotein

decreases

92

high conc. of protein --> density of lipoprotein

increases

93

What do chylomicrons have a higher concentration of compared to other lipoproteins?

Triglycerides (this is why they are the least dense)

94

Where are chylomicrons formed?

Duodenum and jejunum following digestion of fat.

95

Chylomicron fx

transport dietary lipids

96

VLDL fx

transport hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol

97

LDL fx

transport cholesterol to tissue ("bad cholesterol")

98

HDL fx

transport cholesterol out of tissue back to liver ("good cholesterol")

99

Relationship between size and density of lipoproteins

Inverse relationship. As size increases, density decreases. Chylomicrons have the greatest size but lowest density (HDL the reverse)

100

In which species are chylomicrons absent?

herbivores (due to low fat diet)

101

How do chylomicrons enter circulation?

thoracic duct

102

lipoprotein lipase fx

hydrolyzes triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol in capillary beds

103

Postprandial lipemia

white cloudy plasma because of chylomicronemia after eating

104

How are chylomicrons hydrolyzed?

Via lipoprotein lipase. Have a short half life

105

Where are VLDLs synthesized?

liver, intestine

106

What are most VLDLs transformed into when degraded?

LDLs

107

Evidence of VLDL in HCT tube

plasma remains milky

108

Major mechanism by which cholesterol is transported to peripheral tissues

LDLs

109

fx of cholesterol in tissues

1) component of cell membranes
2) formation of steroid hormones

110

Most dense lipoproteins

HDLs

111

Where are HDL precursors formed?

liver

112

Where is HDL formed?

plasma

113

reverse cholesterol transport

process by which HDL transports cholesterol from tissue back to liver

114

Why is atherosclerosis common in humans but rare in domestic animals?

Domestic animals have a higher concentration of HDLs than humans

115

Why do cats have naturally high HDLs?

They are adapted to eating a high fat diet

116

% blood volume in very young animals

>10%

117

% blood volume in hot blooded horses

10-11%

118

% blood volume in cold blooded horses, cats, and rodents

6-7%

119

% blood volume in dogs

8-9%

120

% blood volume in pigs

5-6%

121

platelets =

thrombocytes (thrombocytes is the older term)

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