Lecture 3: Histology 2 (Chamier/Baekey) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3: Histology 2 (Chamier/Baekey) Deck (40):
1

6 surface area modifications of the small intestine

1. length and convolution
2. plicae circulares
3. villi and crypts
4. epithelial cells on surface of villi
5. microvilli project from epithelial cells
6. polysaccharides of membrane glycoproteins

2

Which parts of the small intestine are plicated?

duodenum and jejunum

3

which tunic layers comprise the plicae circularis?

tunica mucosa and tunica submucosa

4

which tunic layers comprise the villi and crypts of the small intestine?

tunica mucosa

5

what structures lie within the villi and crypts of the small intestine?

veins, arteries, lacteals, and lymphatics

6

fx of microvilli

greatly increase the surface area of small intestine lining cells. Uses glycocalyx to increase adsorption of pancreatic enzymes and enhance digestion and absorption at the cell surface

7

what are enterocytes?

lining cells of small intestine surface mucosa

8

GALT =

gut associated lymphoid tissue. Contains migrating lymphocytes and is a major component of the immune system

9

What type of cells reside in the surface mucosa of the small intestine?

-lining cells/enterocytes
-goblet cells
-enteroendocrine cells

10

What type of cells reside in the crypts of lieberkuhn of the small intestine?

-lining cells
-goblet cells
-enteroendocrine cells
-paneth cells
-basal cells

11

fx of paneth cells

are filled with granule cells that may have antimicrobial properties

12

what are peyer's patches?

large lymphoid aggregations in the intestine. Most prominent in the ileum. Are GALT

13

T or F: paneth cells do not migrate

T

14

T or F: small intestine has greater capacity than large intestine to repair itself

T

15

main functions of large intestine

-microbial activity (mainly in the cecum)
-absorption of water, electrolytes, vitamins (mainly in the colon)
-secretion of lubricating mucus
-peristalsis

16

peristalsis is important for:

mixing and propulsion of ingesta from the body

17

surface area is increased in the large intestine via

longitudinal plications (small intestine uses mainly circular folds)

18

T or F: small intestine has greater blood supply than large intestine

T

19

fxs of hepatocytes

1) secrete bile salts/acids, excrete bile pigments
2) synthesize sugars, plasma proteins, clotting factors, lipids, urea, ketone bodies
3) store lipids, vitamins, glycogen
4) transform toxins, drugs, hormones
5) metabolize lipids, proteins, carbs

20

how do bile salts travel from central vein of hepatocyte to the bile duct?

via bile canaliculi

21

Describe the organization of hepatocytes

Plates of hepatocytes are arranged in radial patterns, are surrounded by interlobular connective tissue, and are separated by sinusoids.
-central vein in the center of each plate
-portal triads in the interlobular connective tissue
*1 hepatocyte is assoc. with multiple sinusoids and canaliculi*

22

what are the 3 components of a portal triad?

interlobular bile duct, hepatic artery, and hepatic portal v.

23

importance of hepatic artery with respect to hepatic vasculature

-supplies O2 and metabolic substrates
-supplies 1/5 of the sinusoidal volume

24

importance of hepatic portal v. with respect to hepatic vasculature

-brings substances from small intestine and spleen
-supplies 4/5 of the sinusoidal volume

25

drainage pathway from central vein to hepatic veins

central v. --> sinusoids --> sublobar vv. --> hepatic vv.

26

main fxs of the gallbladder

storage, concentration, and acidification

27

type of epithelium of tunica mucosa of gall bladder

simple columnar

28

tunica muscularis of gall bladder has smooth or striated m.?

smooth

29

pathway of bile from bile canaliculi to duodenum or gall bladder

bile canaliculi --> biliary ductules --> interlobar bile ducts --> intrahepatic ducts --> hepatic ducts --> cystic ducts --> gall bladder OR bile duct --> duodenum

30

cell types of the pancreas

-serous acinar cells
-centroacinar cells
-cuboidal epithelium
-goblet cells

31

fx of serous acinar cells in the pancreas

secrete zymogen granules containing enzymes that are released into the duct system

32

fx of centroacinar cells in the pancreas

line acinus/adenomeres (collections of acinar cells that secrete into a common intralobular duct)

33

fx of cuboidal epithelium in the pancreas

lines intralobular and interlobular secretory ducts

34

fx of crop

An esophageal diverticulum that is used for storage of feed, and later regurgitation to young. Lies before the thoracic inlet

35

what is a proventriculus?

a bird's "stomach." Undergoes acidic and enzymatic digestion

36

the ventriculus includes what structure in birds?

the gizzard

37

the cloaca is a common opening for:

-GI
-urinary
-genital
-Bursa of Fabricius (organ involved in hematopoiesis)

38

vent

outer opening of the cloaca

39

koilin

a carb-protein complex that lines and protects the muscles of the gizzard

40

T or F: the cecum is paired in birds

T

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