Lecture 20: Canine Repro (Kelleman) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 20: Canine Repro (Kelleman) Deck (51):
0

why type of estrous cycle do dogs have?

monoestrous - 1 estrous cycle per year, non-seasonal

1

what is a dog's "heat" or "in season"?

the combination of estrus and proestrus. the time when vulvar discharge is seen

2

when does puberty occur in dogs?

onset of first estrous cycle - 6 months to 2 years of age

3

interestrus interval

the time between one proestrus and the next
4.5 - 12 months

german shepherds - shorter
Basenji - longer (yearly estrus)

4

describe the follicular phase

- estrogen
- subdivided into proestrus and estrus

5

describe the luteal phase

dominated by progesterone
in the bitch, it is generally NOT subdivided into metestrus & diestrus

6

canine estrous cycle

- proestrus
- estrus
- diestrus (aka metestrus)
- anestrus

7

vaginal cytology

gives you a basic idea of where a bitch is in the estrous cycle. useful when used in conjunction with progesterone.
bioassay for presence of ESTROGEN

8

vaginal cytology results: what is the significance of cornification?
non-cornified epithelial cells vs. non-cornified epithelial cells

cornification shows the progression of epithelial cell death resulting from tissue thickening due to estrogen.
non-cornified epithelial cells: parabasal and intermediate
cornified epithelial cells: superficial and anuclear squamous

9

what is the effect of LH in dogs?

ovulation

10

effect of estrogen in dogs?

- vaginal lining epithelial cells and wall thickness
- behavior and physical signs

11

do non-pregnant bitches produce progesterone?

Yes! progesterone is produced in pregnant and non-pregnant bitches!

12

effect of relaxin in dogs?

- produced by the canine placenta
- relaxes pelvic canal and cervix
- blood test for pregnancy determination

13

what diagnostic test is more accurate than any qualitative test?

canine ovulation timing test - tests progesterone levels

14

length of proestrus

0 -27 days; average 9 days

15

behavior during proestrus

attractive to the male but not receptive. will NOT stand to be bred

16

what does a vaginal cytology show during proestrus

progressive cornification

17

endocrinology of estrogen and progesterone during proestrus

estrogen rising to peak!

pre-ovulatory rise in progesterone! - preovulatory luteinzation

18

anatomy during proestrus

vulvar swelling and serosanguinous discharge, vaginal fold thickening, follicular development
- source of RBC's is uterine via diapedesis

19

length of estrus in dogs

4 - 24 days; average 9 days

20

behavior of dogs during estrus

receptive, STANDS TO BE BRED

21

vaginal cytology of dogs in estrus

cornification prominent. should not have WBCs

22

endocrinology of dogs in estrus

estrogen is FALLING
pre-ovulatory rise in progesterone continues!
LH peak (estrus; junction btwn proestrus/estrus)

23

anatomy of dog in estrus

less vulvar swelling and serous to serosanguinous discharge; vaingal fold CRENULATION; further follicular development and OVULATION

24

what is unique about the bitch in estrus?

- progesterone is rising pre-ovulatory!
- and estrogen is falling

25

what happens during estrus?

LH peak
abrupt and short
ovulation occurs 24 - 48 hours later

26

ovulation in the dog - how is it different?

she ovulates primarily OOCYTES!
- they must then mature with meiosis to secondary oocyte prior to fertilization.
- first division in meiosis is reductional

27

when should you breed the bitch?

4 and 6 days after the LH peak for optimally mature oocytes

28

behavior in the bitch during diestrus

NOT RECEPTIVE

29

what will be seen on vaginal cytology during diestrus in the bitch?

ABRUPT change to NON-cornification; WBC normal

30

endocrinology of the bitch during diestrus

HIGH progesterone

31

anatomy of the bitch during diestrus

less vulvar swelling; discharge quality variable, then stops; vaginal fold thinning; has CL

32

length of anestrus in the bitch

4.5 - 5 months

33

behavior of the bitch during anestrus

NOT RECEPTIVE

34

vaginal cytology of the bitch during anestrus

non cornified

35

endocrinology of bitch during anestrus

no progesterone or estrogen
late in the cycle just before pro-estrus there is some LH, FSH and estrogen

36

anatomy of the bitch during anestrous

no vulvar swelling; no discharge, vaginal folds thin, inactive ovaries!

37

stages of mating in the dog (3)

1. first stage coitus
2. the turn
3. second stage coitus

38

what is the level of progesterone in diestrus

it is high; irrespective of pregnancy status
CANNOT be used as pregnancy test
CL dependent to term!!

39

what type of placentation does the dog have

endotheliochorial, zonary, deciduate

- can get marginal hematomas
- green pigment - uteroverdin

40

4 ways to diagnose pregnancy

1. ultrasound
2. palpation
3. relaxation
4. radiographs

41

mechanism used to induce parturition

similar to ruminant:
cortisol, PGF, oxytocin

42

gestation period of the dog

57 - 72 days

43

Stage I - Preparation

- variable timing
- nesting, poor appetite
- cervical softening

44

Stage II - fetal expulsion

- contractions
- generally half to 1 hour between pups
- licks neonate
a prolonged uteroverdin vulvar discharge without birth of pup indicates placental separation and thus fetal life at risk

45

Stage III - what happens?

- fetal membrane passage - generally with each pup
- bitch may eat membranes

46

puerperium: how long is involution? how long can they have lochia?

involution is prolonged - a minimum of 2 months
lochia - is brick-red to brown in color, can have it for several weeks, should be odorless

47

pseudocyesis what is it?

"pseudopregnancy"
- it is every non-pregnant diestrus.
- the progesterone falls during diestrus which stimulates prolactin rise which is instrumental in lactation

48

canine dystocia: obstructive

feto-maternal disproportion, brachycephalics, large singleton

49

canine dystocia: non-obstructive

1. primary uterine inertia: hypocalcemia, myometrial atony
2. secondary uterine inertia: maternal exhaustion

50

dystocia treatment: obstructive, non-obstructive, live compromised pups, and dead pups

obstructive: vaginal exam, c-section, NO ecbolics (dx that induce contraction)
non-obstructive: calcium, oxytocin, c-section
live compromised pups: c-section
dead pups with no obstruction: vaginal delivery, calcium, oxytocin, c-section

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