Lecture 1: Into and Overview (Bolsor) Flashcards Preview

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Main functions of the kidney

1)removal of wastes
2) maintaining body fluid/electrolyte/acid-base balance

1

which 2 organs have greatest control on extracellular pH? How?

lungs via elimination/retention of CO2
kidneys via reabsorption or secretion of H+ or HCO3

2

what 3 systems control water balance, extracellular fluid osmolality and blood pressure?

CNS, Cardiovascular, and renal

3

where is ADH released?

anterior pituitary gland

4

increased venous volume --> ADH secretion?

decreases

5

decreased plasma osmolality ---> ADH release

decreases

6

decreased ADH --> water excretion

increases

7

Which is faster in it's response to pH change: respiratory or renal system?

respiratory (but renal is usually needed for full compensation)

8

what hormone controls sodium reabsorption by the kidneys? Where is it released?

aldosterone (adrenal gland)

9

how do kidneys regulate blood pressure?

via regulation of extracellular water and electrolytes

10

urea

a metabolic waste product that is important in the maintenance of the intrarenal medullary concentration gradient

11

renin

released in response to reduced NaCl delivery to the macula densa. Catalyzes the formation of angiotensin II in the lungs, which then elicits the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex to increase Na reabsorption

12

aldosterone fx in kidneys

stimulates sodium reabsorption

13

common markers of renal failure

elevated metabolic waste products, such as urea, creatinine, bilirubin, and uric acid

14

erythropoetin

renal hormone that stimulates erythrocyte production by bone marrow

15

how are kidneys influential in communication?

urine can carry pheromones

16

three renal capillary beds

1) glomerular
2) peritubular
3) vasa recta

17

glomerular capillary bed

-specifically for filtration
-afferent and efferent arterioles within the glomerulus
-high BP forces solutes out of the blood

18

peritubular capillary bed

-for absorption
-arises from efferent arterioles that drain the glomerulus
-operates under low pressure
-absorbs solutes and water from the tubules

19

vasa recta capillary bed

-long, thin walled looping arterioles that follow the loop of Henle
-serve juxtamedullary nephrons

20

what receptors detect decreased plasma volume and signal production of ADH?

atrial receptors

21

increased renin --> angiotensin II

increases

22

increased angiotensin II ---> aldosterone

increases (see p. 8 diagram in scavma notes)

23

Levels of multiscale systems physiology:

subcellular processes --> cellular processes --> tissue --> organ --> whole body --> behavior --> population. Each step influences the next. Physiology influences behavior

24

initiation of hormonal cascade by renin ultimately stimulates which hormone?

aldosterone

25

nephron

functional subunit of the kidney. Filtrates and reabsorbs arterial plasma components.

26

Bowman's capsule

where plasma filtration occurs within a nephron. Always located in the renal cortex

27

how does age effect #/size of nephrons?

As you get older, nephrons get fewer in number but larger in size

28

proximal tubule

first part of nephron attached to the Bowman's capsule

29

Flow from arcuate artery to bladder through the nephron (10 steps)

arcuate artery --> afferent arterioles --> Bowman's capsule --> proximal tubule --> loop of Henle --> distal tubule --> collecting duct --> renal pelvis --> ureters --> bladder

30

What occurs in the afferent arterioles in kidney?

small molecules pass across the glomerular capillary epithelium into the Bowman's capsule

31

when does "fluid" become "filtrate" in the kidney?

when it passes into the Bowman's capsule

32

what happens in loop of Henle?

filtrate becomes more concentrated

33

what happens in distal tubule of kidney?

sodium and water are removed and returned to the circulation

34

primary site of action of ADH in the kidney

collecting ducts. Causes water reabsorption from tubular fluid

35

juxtaglomerular apparatus

regulates renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Formed when thick ascending limb of loop of Henle loops around to touch the vascular elements supplying the glomerular capillaries.

36

macula densa

darkly staining band of cells in the thick ascending limb. Contain sodium sensing mechanisms that allow the kidney to regulate sodium balance by controlling blood flow through the glomerulus

37

long or short loops of Henle more likely to be involved in urinary concentrating mechs?

Long

38

3 types of cells in collecting ducts

1) Principal cells
2) Intercalated cells (type A)
3) Intercalated cells (type B)

39

Principal cells

present in collecting ducts. Where ADH and aldosterone act to modify salt and H2O balance

40

Type A intercalated cells

A stands for acid. Eliminate excess acid in collecting duct in case of acidemia

41

Type B intercalated cells

B stands for base. Present in collecting ducts. Secrete base into the urine in case of alkalemia

42

What area of the kidney are glomeruli ALWAYS located in? ***

the cortex

43

Which structures of the nephron lie in the medulla?

collecting ducts, loop of Henle

44

What structures of nephron lie in the cortex?

Glomerulus, proximal/distal tubules, part of the collecting ducts

45

how does fluid osmolality change from outer cortex to inner medulla in the kidney?

osmolality increases as you move towards inner medulla. Cortex = isotonic

46

thicker medulla --> ability to concentrate urine

increases

47

xeric definition

something that needs very little water

48

which groups of animals have loops of Henle in their nephrons?

Mammals and birds

49

Which groups of animals have a renal portal system?

birds, reptiles, amphibians

50

which groups of animals have a peritubular capillary network?

mammals only

51

Which animals have salt glands?

birds and reptiles

52

which animal groups excrete uric acid?

birds and reptiles

53

Which species use "number of nephrons filtering" to regulate GFR?

birds, reptiles, amphibians

54

Which group of animals uses "net filtration pressure" to regulate GFR?

mammals

55

fx of salt glands

allows animals to excrete excess salt that kidneys alone could not accomplish

56

how do salt glands and kidneys change in size with an increased salt load?

salt glands increase in size, kidneys don't change

57

NaCl concentration in salt glands vs. kidneys

salt glands maintain constant NaCl concentration, while NaCl concentration varies in the kidney

58

Composition of outflow in salt glands vs. kidneys

Salt glands --> almost exclusively NaCl
kidneys --> NaCl, K, other ions and inorganic solutes

59

which has higher flow rate: salt glands or kidneys?

salt glands (2-fold higher)

60

*vascular beds (primarily afferent and efferent arterioles) are control elements of circulation in the kidney*

:)

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