Flashcards in Lecture 18: Camelid Repro (McNaughten) Deck (53):
old world camelids
ex: dromedary camel, Bactrian camels
used for transportation, meat, milk, fuel (fecal pellets), fiber, leather, racing
new world camelids
ex: llama, alpaca, gunaco, vicuna
in the US llamas and alpacas are more inclined to be utilized for breeding, showing, companionship and providers of fiber
where do new world camelids originate from?
Peru, Bolivia, and Chile
what is the leading state in the US for alpaca registration?
camelid repro is similar to equine in many ways:
- comparable gestation length
- diffuse (micro-cotyledonary) placenta
- ability to breed back early post partum
- rare term twinning
differences between camelids and equine:
- induced ovulators
- duration of copulation
- follicular waves
- non-seasonal breeding
"criation" or "unpacking"
sternal recumbency =
"cush" or "kush"
describe male prepuce.
triangular and non-pendulous. posterior orientation so they urinate backwards between legs. when sexually stimulation it points forward
-pre-scrotal sigmoid flexure
- has a cartilagenous process with a slight clockwise curvature allowing penetration of the cervix.
- can ejaculate in both uterine horns!
which male has a penis the most similar to the camelid?
describe the orientation of the testis
- vertical orientation
- epididymis is small
- tail of epididymis is caudo-dorsal
name the accessory sex glands present in the camelid (3). which one is missing?
2. bulbourethral glands
3. small ampulla
--> No vesicular glands! <--
what 2 things are unique about the camelid uterus?
1. it has a distinct septum with incomplete fusion.
2. they don't recognize anything in the right horn.
what is unique about the camelid cervix?
it has an external os that protrudes into the vestibule. looks like a doughnut.
- has 2 to 3 spiraling ring-like structures
how long is the vagina in camelids?
15 - 25cm long
describe the mammary glands of the camelid:
- has 4 glandular quarters composed of 2 distinct glands for a total of 8 separate glands total.
- no anastomoses between glands
- separate streak canal providing a distinct separation between left and right halves of the udder.
- independent anterior and posterior quarters - no visible separation
describe the separation between left and right halves of hte udder
its a piece of fibroelastic tissue extending from the linea alba and prepubic tendon
when do mammary glands develop?
at the end of the first pregnancy
how is puberty driven in male camelids?
drive by testosterone. levels are low until about 2 years of age
when do females reach puberty?
ovarian activity begins around 10 months can successfully carry creas between 12 to 13 months
how often do males undergo spermatogenesis in camelids?
it is a seasonal effect
what developmental changes occur in the penis? (2)
1. cartilaginous process develops with age
2. testosterone influence cause preputial adhesions to disappear by three years
what is unique about the camelid estrous cycle?
- there is no true estrous cycle!
- its not repeatable or predictable. there are few or no external signs that are seen in others.
Peruvian breeding season is when?
december to march
what are the follicular dynamics of the camelid?
there are distinct follicular waves, and follicles become atretic.
- they produce antral fluid which contains estradiol
male mating behavior consists of:
like med students --> "the chase" and "courting"
female breeding behavior when receptive:
- she will "cush"
- females sit down near mating couples
female breeding behavior when non-receptive:
they reject the male by: "spitting off," running and screaming
how long is copulation typically?
2 - 25 minutes (may take up to 70minutes)
describe the type of ejaculation in camelids.
- once every minute
- semen deposited into uterus
what type of ovulators are camelids?
what stimulates females to induce ovulation? (3)
2. cervical stimulation.
3. semen contains "ovulation inducing factor" (OIF) which triggers the release of LH.
what is ovulation inducing factor?
it is a hormone in semen that stimulates release of LH from female pituitary gland
most pregnancies occur in which horn of the camelid?
the fetus will remain in the left horn, the placenta will be in both.
what produces progesterone needed throughout pregnancy?
when does the blastocyst enter the uterus?
day 5 - 6
what are the 5 ways to diagnose pregnancy?
1. mating behavior (may yield false positives)
2. plasma progesterone: 21 days post breeding. (also prone to false positives because we rely on a low number)
3. transrectal palpation: > 35 days post breeding if you feel a fluid filled left horn, its highly suggestive of pregnancy. at 5-6 months, fetus is palpable.
4. transrectal ultrasound: 12 - 16 days
5. transabdominal ultrasound: 60 - 90 days
what type of placentation do camelids have?
non-deciduate, epitheliochorial, diffuse (microcotyledonary)
what is the length of gestation in alpacas and llamas?
335 - 360 days
when does parturition occur?
between 6am and 1pm
signs of impending parturition?
not really recognizable!
Stage 1 of parurition in camelids
may isolate themselves and feel restless. will make frequent attempts to urinate.
Stage 2: parturition
average 8 - 25 minutes
- deliver cria while standing
Stage 3 of parturition
passes placenta within 2 hours of delivering cria.
if its been more than 24 hours, its considered retained.
what is unique about the epidermal membrane in camelids?
it is often still attached to the cria's mucosal membranes at birth. let it fall off on its own!
describe the postpartum period in camelids
- will have vulvar discharge present up to one week postpartum
- normal lochia thick and pinkish or white
- little "mothering" is normal
- have rapid return to receptivity
how many days postpartum can camelids be receptive to male?
4 days! pre-ovulatory follicle may be present
what is the earliest time a camelid can breed postpartum? what are the 3 negatives?
less than 15 days. but fertility rates will be variable.
there will be:
1. incomplete luteal regression
2. incomplete uterine involution
3. irregular follicle development.