Lecture 6: Histology (Cortes-Hinojosa) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 6: Histology (Cortes-Hinojosa) Deck (40):
1

Order pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros in order of evolution

pronephros --> mesonephros --> metanephros

2

Name 3 things found in the medullary rays*****

1) Proximal straight tubules
2) Distal straight tubules
3) Cortical collecting ducts

3

Name 3 things found in the cortical labyrinth*****

1) glomeruli
2) proximal convoluted tubules
3) distal convoluted tubules

4

What structures are in the CORTEX?**

Medullary rays (PST, DST, CD) and cortical labyrinth (PCT, DCT, glomeruli)

5

What structures can be found in all regions of the MEDULLA?**

Collecting duct
Thin tubule
PST

6

What structures are in the outer stripe of the medulla?**

PST, DST, collecting duct

7

What structures are in the inner stripe of the medulla?**

DST, thin limb of loop of Henle, collecting duct

8

Thick ascending limb of loop of henle =**

distal straight tubule

9

Thick descending limb of loop of henle = **

proximal straight tubule

10

What structures are in the outer medulla (outer + inner stripes)?

PST, DST, thin limb of loop of Henle, collecting duct (PST and DST are thick limbs!)

11

PST and DST are considered thin or thick limbs?

thick

12

What is found in the inner medulla?

thin limbs and collecting duct only

13

Structures found in both cortex and at least one region of the medulla

Collecting duct
PCT
DCT

14

Pathway of blood in the kidney

renal a.--> lobar a. --> arcuate a. --> interlobular a. --> afferent arterioles --> glomerular capillaries --> efferent arterioles --> peritubular capillaries --> vasa recta (to medulla)

15

Where are arcuate aa. found?

at corticomedullary junction

16

What is the mesangium?

Inner layer of the glomerulus within the basement membrane surrounding the glomerular capillaries. The cells are phagocytic and secrete the amorphous mesangial matrix

17

What drives solute and water reabsorption in the proximal tubule?

basolateral plasma membrane infoldings containing Na/K ATPase

18

Main fxs of loop of Henle

-generation and maintenance of medullary interstitial gradient
-regulation of H2O balance and urea excretion

19

3 main nephron segments of loop of Henle

1) PST
2) Thin limbs (w/ hairpin turn)
3) Thick ascending limb (DST)

20

what kind of animal secretes urea?

mammals

21

what kind of animal secretes uric acid?

birds and reptiles.

22

T or F: reptiles and birds don't have Loops of Henle

true

23

tubule fluid bypasses what in short-looped nephrons? Why is this important?

inner medulla. Enhances water excretion

24

Advantage of long-looped nephrons

Water reabsorption enhanced because countercurrent exchange maintains medullary gradient

25

Thick limbs main fx

Na,CL resorbtion/K secretion

26

Thin limbs main fx

countercurrent exchange

27

fx of juxtaglomerular apparatus

regulates single glomerular filtration rate

28

fx of extraglomerular mesangium (ECM)

regulates glomerular blood flow via contraction

29

fx of macula densa

detection of signal related to solute contents

30

fx of Distal convoluted tubules (DCT)

Na/Ca/Mg resorption, dilution of tubule fluid

31

fx of Cortical collecting duct (CCD)

1) NaCl reabsorption
2) K secretion
3) vasopressin-sensitive H2O reabsorption
4) acid-base regulation

32

Fx of outer medullary collecting duct

1) K and acid secretion
2) K and NaCl absorption

33

Fx of medullary collecting duct

1) acid secretion
2) NaCl reabsorption
3) ADH-sensitive H2O and urea reabsorption

34

Where does collecting duct system start and end?

Starts in cortical medullary rays, ends where papillary rays empty into renal pelvis

35

What kind of epithelium in calyces, renal pelvis, ureters, and bladder?

Transitional epithelium

36

What kind of epithelium in urethra?

Stratified squamous epithelium

37

Pathway of urine from kidney to urethra

calyces --> renal pelvis --> ureters --> bladder --> urethra

38

How does ureter minimize accretion of CaCO3 crystals?

secretions of mucous glands in lamina propria

39

3 layers of tunica muscularis in the urethra?

1) inner longitudinal
2) middle circular
3) outer longitudinal

*in males, striated urethral muscle replaces the middle circular layer at the prostate

40

Which species have mucous glands in their urethra?

horses and cats

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