Flashcards in Lecture 14 - Rumen (Grosche) Deck (71)
list animals with a ruminant digestive system that are known as ruminantia
cattle, sheep, goat, bison, water buffalo, yak, antelope, deer, wildebeest, nilgai, pronghorn, giraffe, etc.
Ruminantia includes many of the well-known large grazing or browsing mammals: among them cattle, goats, sheep, deer, and antelope.
All members of the Ruminantia are ruminants: they digest food in two steps, chewing and swallowing in the normal way to begin with, and then regurgitating the semi-digested cud to re-chew it and thus extract the maximum possible food value.
an even-toed ungulate mammal of a group that comprises the camels, llamas, and their extinct relatives. They are distinguished by bearing their weight on the sole-pads of the feet rather than on the hoofs, and they do not chew the cud.
list animals with a ruminant digestive system that are known as tylopods
camel, dromedary, llama, guanaco, alpaca, vicuna
what is a special feature of the ruminant digestive system
it allows them to gain nutrition from forages (grass) and other roughages (high fiber food)
which animals have one stomach with 3 compartments?
alpacas, camels, llamas
what are 3 characteristics of ruminant teeth?
1. no upper incisors
2. dental pad: fibrous connective tissue with cornified epithelium
3. mobile lower teeth
4. canine tooth referred to as the 4th incisor
how many baby teeth does a ruminant typically have
how many permanent teeth does a ruminant typically have?
what are 4 characteristics of alpaca teeth?
1. one upper incisor
2. dental pad
3. fighting teeth: modified incisor and canine teeth
4. two fighting teeth on upper jaw and one on lower jaw
how many baby teeth does an alpaca have?
18 - 22
how many permanent teeth does an alpaca have?
28 - 32
what are two characteristics of a ruminant tongue?
1. transverse lingual fossa
2. covered with lingual papillae (has mechanical and sensory functions)
4 characteristics of nasolabial glands in the ruminant
1. small glands in the muzzle
2. produce a watery secretion which keep the muzzle moist
3. chemical properties are similar to saliva
4. cattle mix nasolabial gland secretion with feed during chewing and lick their muzzle during rumination
how much mastication is done before first swallowing?
very little to provide significant volume of food in the rumen
what are some characteristics of rumination?
1. regurgitation of portions of ingested food
2. thorough mastication
3. rumination takes up to 8 - 12 hours/day
4. lubrication for swallowing
5. mixing with saliva to buffer rumen
6. exposure to digestive enzymes
what is the significance of spitting in camelids?
its a special kind of regurgitation
- an expression of displeasure, esablishment of social order in herd, response to serious threat
- true acid stomach content spit is highest level of serious and vile aggression with several prior behavioral warnings
- sometimes its just air and saliva spit without prior warnings
what is the pH of ruminant saliva?
8.1 , isotonic and is 99 - 99.5% water
what are the anorganic components of saliva in ruminants?
Na = 136-201 mEq/L
bicarb = 108
P = 26
Cl = 14 - 15
K = 14-15
what are the organic components of saliva in ruminants
70% of dry matter
albumin, globulin, glucoprotein, mucin
alkaligenic glands are high in what compound? and found in which glands?
high in bicarb - particularly in the parotid and mandibular glands
mucogenic glands are high in what compound? and found in which glands?
mucoprotein; found in submaxillary, sublingual, labial, pharyngeal and buccal
which gland has continous production of alkaline saliva?
what are the functions of saliva?
1. moistens and lubricates food, aids in bolus formation and swallowing
2. anti-foaming properties to prevent bloating
3. adds water and nutrients (urea, P, Mg, Cl)
4. recycling of nitrogen via rumeno-hepatic circulation (absorption of ammonia, secretion of urea)
what are some characteristics shared by the rumen, reticulum and omasum?
1. lined with non-glandular mucous membranes
2. absorption but no secretion
3. sites of anaerobic microbial fermentation
what are some characteristics of the abomasum?
lined with glandular mucosa
secretion of digestive enzymes
what is the muscularture of the cardia used for?
rumiantion and formation of esophageal (reticular) groove
what is the function of the esophageal groove
for bypassing the rumen, reticulum and omasum in young animals
the rumen comprises up to how much of the stomach capacity?