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Flashcards in Leukocytes Deck (44):
1

granulocytes =

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

2

polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) usually refer to:

neutrophils

3

granulocyte granules are composed of:

lysosomes containing hydrolytic enzymes and antibacterial agents

4

at what developmental stage do primary granules appear?

late myeloblast/early promyelocyte stage

5

at what stage do secondary granules appear?

myelocyte stage

6

leukemia =

high leukocytes

7

myeloperoxidase stain stains for:

primary granules

8

when do neutrophil precursors stop undergoing mitosis?

at myelocytic stage (when indentation occurs)

9

pathway of maturation for eosinophil

myelocyte --> metamyelocyte --> band --> mature eosinophil

10

mononuclear leukocytes includes:

lymphocytes and monocytes

11

granular lymphocytes are either _____ or ______

NK cells or cytotoxic T lymphocytes

12

Which species tend to have high leukocytes?

pig,cat

13

Which species tend to have low leukocytes?

Human, sheep, cow

14

Most numerous leukocyte cell type in dogs, cats, horses

neutrophils

15

most numerous leukocyte cell type in pigs, ruminants, rodents

lymphocytes

16

T or F: monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils are typically present in blood from normal mammals

T

17

How do concentrations of neutrophils and lymphocytes change IMMEDIATELY after birth?

neutrophils increase, lymphocytes decrease. Later on, neutrophils decrease and lymphocytes increase

18

Why do neutrophils spike after birth?

they are released from the bone marrow post-partum

19

what happens to neutrophils that don't come across an activated endothelial cell?

apoptosis within a few days of not being activated

20

Epinephrine/exercise --> circulating neutrophils

increases

21

Which survives longer in the blood: basophils or eosinophils?

eosinophils

22

What do monocytes develop into?

macrophages and dendritic cells

23

where are the marginating pools for monocytes and lymphocytes located?

lung capillaries

24

most lymphocytes located in:

lymphoid organs

25

most lymphocytes circulating in the blood are:

naive T and B lymphocytes

26

Rank from most to least common in the blood: T cells, B cells, NK cells

T cells > B cells > NK cells

27

memory lymphocytes

lymphocytes that have seen Ag. They are more likely than naive lymphocytes to migrate back to where they've seen an Ag in the past

28

What do lymphocytes bind to?

High endothelial venules (HEVs) in lymphoid organs or activated endothelial cells

29

Which has longest and shortest lifespans among T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocyes, and NK cells?

T-lymphocytes have longest lifespan, NK cells shortest lifespan

30

haptotaxis

directional motility or outgrowth of cells, usually in the direction of chemoattractants. Neutrophils utilize this to migrate through tissues and destroy invading bacteria

31

chemotaxis

a chemically prompted taxis, in which somatic cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment.

32

surface charge of neutrophils

negative

33

PAF =

platelet activating factor

34

3 things that activate endothelial cells to chemoattract neutrophils

thrombin (via coagulation)
histamine (via mast cells)
TNF/IL1 (via inflammation)

35

What happens when an endothelial cell is activated?

selectins and ICAM are upregulated on the surface of the cell, which upregulates adhesion and chemoattraction of neutrophils flowing by. Firm adhesion is achieved with integrin activation and binding, which is tighter than selectin binding.

36

Result of integrin deficiency

high white count in blood because neuts can't migrate out through endothelial cells

37

do leukocytes adhere to the surface of arteries?

No, only veins

38

G-CSF and GM-CSF

growth factors for neutrophils in the tissues. Stimulate proper neutrophil function throughout life of the cell

39

chemoattractants for neutrophils

IL8, C5a, PAF, B4, bacterial products recognized by Toll-like receptors

40

myeloperoxidase

released into a phagosome to kill bacteria. Enhances H2O2 killing

41

nonenzymatic molecules in granules

lactoferrin (binds Fe), cationic proteins and peptides including defensins which are inserted in lipid bilayer

42

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETS)

released by neutrophils. Contain proteins from granules that kill microbes without phagocytosis

43

eosinophils mainly found where? what is their fx?

GI mucosa. Defense against helminths. POOR defense against bacteria/viruses. Produce type 2 cytokine-induced inflammation

44

What do type 2 helper T lymphocytes recruit/activate?

B lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells

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