Lecture 3: The Ruminant Stomach Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3: The Ruminant Stomach Deck (54):
1

what are the 4 compartments of the ruminant stomach?

1. reticulum
2. rumen
3. omasum
4. abomasum

2

name some ruminant species other than cattle.

deer, sheep, goats, elk, antelope, moose, giraffe, camels, llamas

3

what is unique about the compound stomach? why was it developed?

it provides an upper digestive tract capable of promoting growth of fermentative microorganisms which produce unique enzymes that can break down the low quality foodstuffs ingested (ie cellulose)

4

what structures can be seen from the left side in normal anatomic orientation?

- reticulum
- part of abomasum
- rumen (specifically cranial sac, insula and ventral sac)

5

what structures can be seen from the right side in normal anatomic orientation?

reticulum
omasum
abomasum
pylorus

6

what structures can be seen from the dorsal view in normal anatomic orientation?

rumen
spleen
liver
omasum
abomasum

7

which side does the rumen occupy almost all of?

the left abdominal cavity

8

which surface of the rumen lies adjacent to the diaphragm and left abdominal wall?

the parietal surface

9

which side of the rumen faces the intestines, liver, omasum and abomasum?

the visceral surface

10

1. which side of the body is most of the reticulum located?
2. describe its anatomical location

1. primarily on the left
2. it lies in the most cranial compartment, dorsal to the xiphoid process of the sternum

11

which side of the body is omasum located? and descibe the location of the omasum

it is located cranially on the the RIGHT side of the abdominal cavity, caudal to the reticulum

12

describe the location of the abomasum

it is located on the right ventral floor of the abdominal cavity dorsal and caudal to the xiphoid process

13

how is the rumen attached in the body?

it is only attached to the abdominal wall dorsally. this allows great freedom of movement.

14

how does the cranial sac of the rumen communicate with the reticulum?

the ruminoreticular orifice

15

what surrounds the ruminoreticular orifice? (2 things)

the ruminoreticular fold and the esophagus

16

how does the esophagus incompletely surround the ruminoreticular orifice?

via the cardia

17

what is located on the mucosal surface of the rumen?

ruminal papillae

18

what 3 things does the reticulum communicate with and how?

1. the esophagus at the cardia
2. the cranial sac of the rumen via the ruminorecticular orifice
3. the omasum via the reticulo-omasal orifice

19

what is located along the cranial wall of the reticulum extending from the cardia to the reticulo-omasal orifice?

the reticular groove

20

what is the function of the reticular groove?

the reticular groove consists of two muscular folds. when they contract, ingesta can bypass the rumen and to directly to the omasum

21

what is the omasal groove?

it is a continuation of the reicular groove in the omasum. the omasal groove bypasses the omasum.

22

what is significant about the reticular groove and the omasal groove? when would they be used?

the function of these grooves is most important in the suckling calf when the ingested high protein milk can only be digested in the abomasum, the true glandular stomach.

23

describe the location of the reticulum. what is significant about the location of the reticulum?

the reticulum lies up against the peritoneal side of the diaphragm.

because of this location, heavy foreign objects that are accidentally swallowed and retained can often penetrate the cranial wall of the reticulum and cause inflammation of peritoneal and pleural linings as well as involvement of the heart and liver

24

what is the common term for the traumatic reticulitis?

"hardware disease"

25

what are reticular crests?

honeycomb-like cells formed by mucosal folds on the mucosal surface of the reticulum

26

describe the location of the omasum

located on the RIGHT side above and cranial to the xiphoid cartilage contained within the thoracic part of the abdominal cavity

27

describe the omasal mucosa. there are specifically 2 structures we need to know.

the omasal mucosa forms broad flat leaves called (1) omasal laminae (omasal leaves) that are covered with sort and stubby (2) papillae.

28

what is the function of the papillae?

to increase the absorptive surface area for water and volatile fatty acids (which is why the material found in the omasum is always very dry).

29

what is the abomasum referred to?

the "true" glandular stomach

30

where is the abomasum located?

dorsal and caudal to the xiphoid cartilage

31

name the 3 parts of the abomasum

the fundus, body and pyloric region

32

what does the omasal groove continue as once it reaches the abomasum?

it continues as the abomasal groove through the omasoabomasal orifice.

33

describe the mucosa of the abomasum. there are 2 structures we need to know.

the mucosa has many spiral folds called (1) rugae in the body a (2) torus pyloricus present at the pylorus

34

what is the function of the torus pyloricus?

it functions to help close the pylorus

35

the compound stomach is supplied by branches of which artery?

the celiac artery

36

the splenic artery gives rise to 2 arteries. what are they and what do they supply?

1. the right ruminal artery - supplies caudal half of rumen including the blind sacs
2. the left ruminal artery - supplies the cranial half of the rumen

37

what artery branches off the left ruminal artery and what does it supply?

the reticular artery - it supplies the reticulum

38

what does the left gastric artery supply?

1. greater curvatures of the omasum
2. lesser curvatures of the abomasum

39

what branches off the left gastric artery? what does it supply?

the left gastroepiploic artery - it supplies the other curvatures of the omasum and abomasum

40

what does the hepatic artery supply?

the distal half of the abomasum

41

what 2 arteries branch off the hepatic artery and what do they supply?

1. the right gastric artery - lesser curvature of the abomasum
2. the right gastroepiploic artery - greater curvature of the abomasum

42

what does the dorsal vagal trunk innervate?

the rumen
visceral surfaces of the reticulum and omasum
lesser curvature of the abomasum

43

what does the ventral vagal trunk innervate?

the parietal surface of the stomach including the reticulum, omasum and right abomasum

44

vagal innervation is responsible for what SIX functions?

1. ruminoreticular contraction cycles
2. omasal contraction cycle
3. eructation
4. regurgitation
5. reflex closure of reticular (gastric) groove
6. abomasal motility and secretion

45

what does the greater omentum form?

a two-layer sling between the descending duodenum on the right side and the caudal part of the rumen on the left side.

46

what is the superifical leaf of the greater omentum attached to?

the left longitudinal groove laterally and the greater curvature of the abomasum cranially

47

what does the superifical leaf of the greater omentum lie against?

the parietal peritoneum of the ventral abdominal wall

48

what does the deep leaf of the greater omentum attach to?

the right longitudinal groove of the rumen

49

what does the ventral sac of the rumen lie within?

the omental bursa

50

what two structures rest on the dorsal surface of the deep leaf (in the sling)?

what is this space called?

1. the small intestine
2. spiral colon

the supraommental recess

51

define supraomental recess

space that is open caudally and occupied by the intestines

52

what is clinically significant about the free border made by the superficial and deep leaves?

during surgery through the right paralumbar fossa, you have to pull the greater omentum cranially to reach the small intestine, colon and cecum

53

what is the greater omentum also attached to?

the greater curvature of the abomasum

54

what does the lesser omentum attach to?

the liver, the right side of the omasum and the lesser curvature of the abomasum

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