Lecture 1: Intro and Overview (Freeman) Flashcards Preview

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0

Compare the basic anatomy of ruminant vs. camelid vs. equine vs. carnivore vs. omnivore GI tract

-Ruminants have well developed forestomachs and hindgut
-Camelids have a 3 compartment stomach, similar to ruminants
-Equines are similar to monogastric pattern, except they also have well developed hind guts
-Carnivores and omnivores have simple monogastric pattern

1

Why does the food chain have a pyramid shape?

At each section on the way up, there is an energy loss and by the time you get to the top, there is so much energy lost that only a few individuals can be supported
-only about 10% of the energy is transferred up at each lvl

2

Why is prey selection important?

predators pick the prey based on "most bang for their buck"
i.e. - lions would have to expend a lot of energy to kill one mouse, and to kill enough mice to make up for the energy needed to kill one zebra

3

autotrophs vs. heterotrophs

autotrophs produce their own food, while heterotrophs consume their food from a preferred source

4

Where in GI tract are soluble and insoluble nutrients digested in the horse?

soluble nutrients are digested in stomach, small intestine; insoluble nutrients are digested in hindgut (colon, cecum) via symbiotic bacteria

5

main contribution of cheek teeth to digestion

mastication

6

main contribution of pharynx and esophagus to digestion

degluttination

7

main contribution of parotid gland to digestion

lubrication

8

main contribution of pancreas to digestion

secretion of digestive enzymes

9

main contributions of liver to digestion

digestion of fat via secretion of bile salts and bicarbonate

10

main contributions of stomach to digestion

Acid and peptic digestion of protein, secretion of regulatory peptides
*where food is broken down into smaller particles that can be digested*

11

main contributions of small intestine to digestion

-digestion of fats sugars, proteins
-absorption of fats, sugars, peptides, amino acids, bile salts, vitamins, minerals
-regulatory peptides
-secretion
*most important site for absorption*

12

main contributions of large intestine to digestion

-microbial fermentation
-absorption of salt, water, volatile fatty acids
-secretion
*where bacteria primarily contribute to digestive process*

13

What is "prehension"?

the process of taking up food and breaking it down (involves lips as well as teeth)

14

describe equine mastication

grind food material from side to side to break down into smaller swallowable parts
-can create sharp edges which need to be filed down

15

what is considered the "true stomach" in cattle?

abomasum

16

Why are horses most prone to gastric ulcers?

they have a large nonglandular area in their stomach that is not protected from acid secretions

17

T or F: cardiac, fundic, and pyloric parts of the stomach are all glandular

T

18

T or F: horses don't have gall bladders. Why?

T. They have continuous secretion of bile due to their constant grazing habits

19

which animals have a gall bladder but have almost continuous secretion of bile?

ruminants and pigs

20

which animals have a gall bladder and don't have continuous secretion of bile?

dogs and cats

21

what relaxes the gall bladder sphincter of Oddi to allow secretion of bile after a meal?

CCK

22

Kleiber's law

larger animals need to eat less food per unit of body weight than smaller animals

23

cecotrophy

digestive strategy used by rabbits. Two types of feces are produced; one type is high in protein synthesized by cecal microbes. The rabbit consumes this feces to reabsorb protein

24

T of F: the large intestine has no villi

T. No surface digestion or absorption of fats, sugars, and protein products occurs in the large intestine

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