Flashcards in Lecture 1: Intro and Overview (Freeman) Deck (25)
Compare the basic anatomy of ruminant vs. camelid vs. equine vs. carnivore vs. omnivore GI tract
-Ruminants have well developed forestomachs and hindgut
-Camelids have a 3 compartment stomach, similar to ruminants
-Equines are similar to monogastric pattern, except they also have well developed hind guts
-Carnivores and omnivores have simple monogastric pattern
Why does the food chain have a pyramid shape?
At each section on the way up, there is an energy loss and by the time you get to the top, there is so much energy lost that only a few individuals can be supported
-only about 10% of the energy is transferred up at each lvl
Why is prey selection important?
predators pick the prey based on "most bang for their buck"
i.e. - lions would have to expend a lot of energy to kill one mouse, and to kill enough mice to make up for the energy needed to kill one zebra
autotrophs vs. heterotrophs
autotrophs produce their own food, while heterotrophs consume their food from a preferred source
Where in GI tract are soluble and insoluble nutrients digested in the horse?
soluble nutrients are digested in stomach, small intestine; insoluble nutrients are digested in hindgut (colon, cecum) via symbiotic bacteria
main contribution of cheek teeth to digestion
main contribution of pharynx and esophagus to digestion
main contribution of parotid gland to digestion
main contribution of pancreas to digestion
secretion of digestive enzymes
main contributions of liver to digestion
digestion of fat via secretion of bile salts and bicarbonate
main contributions of stomach to digestion
Acid and peptic digestion of protein, secretion of regulatory peptides
*where food is broken down into smaller particles that can be digested*
main contributions of small intestine to digestion
-digestion of fats sugars, proteins
-absorption of fats, sugars, peptides, amino acids, bile salts, vitamins, minerals
*most important site for absorption*
main contributions of large intestine to digestion
-absorption of salt, water, volatile fatty acids
*where bacteria primarily contribute to digestive process*
What is "prehension"?
the process of taking up food and breaking it down (involves lips as well as teeth)
describe equine mastication
grind food material from side to side to break down into smaller swallowable parts
-can create sharp edges which need to be filed down
what is considered the "true stomach" in cattle?
Why are horses most prone to gastric ulcers?
they have a large nonglandular area in their stomach that is not protected from acid secretions
T or F: cardiac, fundic, and pyloric parts of the stomach are all glandular
T or F: horses don't have gall bladders. Why?
T. They have continuous secretion of bile due to their constant grazing habits
which animals have a gall bladder but have almost continuous secretion of bile?
ruminants and pigs
which animals have a gall bladder and don't have continuous secretion of bile?
dogs and cats
what relaxes the gall bladder sphincter of Oddi to allow secretion of bile after a meal?
larger animals need to eat less food per unit of body weight than smaller animals
digestive strategy used by rabbits. Two types of feces are produced; one type is high in protein synthesized by cecal microbes. The rabbit consumes this feces to reabsorb protein