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Flashcards in List-40 Deck (80):
1

alloy

vt. 使成合金;使减低成色
n. 合金
vi. 易于铸成合金
n. (Alloy)人名;(英)阿洛伊
-------------------------------------------

  1. a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten
  2. the state of impairing the quality or reducing the value of something
  3. lower in value by increasing the base-metal content
  4. make an alloy of

    2

    altitude

    n. 高地;高度;[数] 顶垂线;(等级和地位等的)高级
    -------------------------------------------

    1. elevation especially above sea level or above the earth's surface
    2. the perpendicular distance from the base of a geometric figure to opposite vertex (or side if parallel)
    3. angular distance above the horizon (especially of a celestial object)

      3

      arrange

      vt. 安排;排列;整理
      vi. 安排;排列;协商
      -------------------------------------------

      1. put into a proper or systematic order
      2. make arrangements for
      3. plan, organize, and carry out (an event)
      4. set (printed matter) into a specific format
      5. arrange attractively

        4

        backup

        n. 支持;后援;阻塞
        adj. 支持的;候补的
        vt. 做备份
        -------------------------------------------

        1. an accumulation caused by clogging or a stoppage
        2. someone who takes the place of another (as when things get dangerous or difficult)
        3. a subordinate musical part; provides background for more important parts
        4. (computer science) a copy of a file or directory on a separate storage device
        5. the act of providing approval and support

          5

          blame

          vt. 责备;归咎于
          n. 责备;责任;过失
          -------------------------------------------

          1. an accusation that you are responsible for some lapse or misdeed
          2. a reproach for some lapse or misdeed
          3. put or pin the blame on
          4. harass with constant criticism
          5. attribute responsibility to

            6

            blink

            vt. 眨眼;使…闪烁
            vi. 眨眼;闪烁
            n. 眨眼;瞬间;闪光
            n. (Blink)人名;(德)布林克
            -------------------------------------------

            1. a reflex that closes and opens the eyes rapidly
            2. briefly shut the eyes
            3. force to go away by blinking
            4. gleam or glow intermittently

              7

              blur

              vt. 涂污;使…模糊不清;使暗淡;玷污
              vi. 沾上污迹;变模糊
              n. 污迹;模糊不清的事物
              -------------------------------------------

              1. a hazy or indistinct representation
              2. become glassy; lose clear vision
              3. to make less distinct or clear
              4. make unclear, indistinct, or blurred
              5. make a smudge on; soil by smudging

                8

                boulder

                n. 卵石,大圆石;巨砾
                -------------------------------------------

                1. a large smooth mass of rock detached from its place of origin
                2. a town in north central Colorado; Rocky Mountains resort center and university town

                  9

                  cancel

                  vt. 取消;删去
                  vi. 取消;相互抵销
                  n. 取消,撤销
                  n. (Cancel)人名;(法)康塞尔
                  -------------------------------------------

                  1. a notation cancelling a previous sharp or flat
                  2. postpone indefinitely or annul something that was scheduled
                  3. make up for
                  4. declare null and void; make ineffective
                  5. remove or make invisible

                    10

                    cashier

                    n. 出纳员;司库;收银员
                    vt. 解雇;抛弃
                    -------------------------------------------

                    1. an employee of a bank who receives and pays out money
                    2. a person responsible for receiving payments for goods and services (as in a shop or restaurant)
                    3. discard or do away with
                    4. discharge with dishonor, as in the army

                      11

                      centigrade

                      adj. 摄氏的;[仪] 摄氏温度的;百分度的
                      -------------------------------------------

                      1. of or relating to a temperature scale on which the freezing point of water is 0 degrees and the boiling point of water is 100 degrees

                        12

                        chip

                        vt. 削,凿;削成碎片
                        vi. 剥落;碎裂
                        n. [电子] 芯片;筹码;碎片;(食物的) 小片; 薄片
                        -------------------------------------------

                        1. a small fragment of something broken off from the whole
                        2. a triangular wooden float attached to the end of a log line
                        3. a piece of dried bovine dung
                        4. a thin crisp slice of potato fried in deep fat
                        5. a mark left after a small piece has been chopped or broken off of something

                          13

                          cipher

                          n. 密码;暗号;零
                          vi. 使用密码;计算;做算术
                          vt. 计算;做算术;将…译成密码
                          -------------------------------------------

                          1. a message written in a secret code
                          2. a mathematical element that when added to another number yields the same number
                          3. a quantity of no importance
                          4. a person of no influence
                          5. a secret method of writing

                            14

                            clear

                            adj. 清楚的;清澈的;晴朗的;无罪的
                            vt. 通过;清除;使干净;跳过
                            vi. 放晴;变清澈
                            adv. 清晰地;完全地
                            n. 清除;空隙
                            -------------------------------------------

                            1. the state of being free of suspicion
                            2. a clear or unobstructed space or expanse of land or water
                            3. rid of obstructions
                            4. make a way or path by removing objects
                            5. become clear

                              15

                              clump

                              n. 丛;笨重的脚步声;土块
                              vi. 形成一丛;以沉重的步子行走
                              vt. 使成一丛;使凝结成块
                              -------------------------------------------

                              1. a grouping of a number of similar things
                              2. a compact mass
                              3. a heavy dull sound (as made by impact of heavy objects)
                              4. make or move along with a sound as of a horse's hooves striking the ground
                              5. come together as in a cluster or flock

                                16

                                concede

                                vt. 承认;退让;给予,容许
                                vi. 让步
                                -------------------------------------------

                                1. admit, make a clean breast of
                                2. be willing to concede
                                3. give over; surrender or relinquish to the physical control of another
                                4. acknowledge defeat

                                  17

                                  conservationist

                                  n. 自然资源保护论者
                                  -------------------------------------------

                                  1. someone who works to protect the environment from destruction or pollution

                                    18

                                    conservative

                                    adj. 保守的
                                    n. 保守派,守旧者
                                    -------------------------------------------

                                    1. a person who has conservative ideas or opinions
                                    2. resistant to change
                                    3. opposed to liberal reforms
                                    4. avoiding excess
                                    5. unimaginatively conventional

                                      19

                                      context

                                      n. 环境;上下文;来龙去脉
                                      -------------------------------------------

                                      1. discourse that surrounds a language unit and helps to determine its interpretation
                                      2. the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation or event

                                        20

                                        crack

                                        vt. 使破裂;打开;变声
                                        vi. 破裂;爆裂
                                        n. 裂缝;声变;噼啪声
                                        adj. 最好的;高明的
                                        -------------------------------------------

                                        1. a long narrow opening
                                        2. a narrow opening
                                        3. a long narrow depression in a surface
                                        4. a sudden sharp noise
                                        5. a chance to do something

                                          21

                                          culture

                                          n. 文化,文明;修养;栽培
                                          vt. [细胞][微] 培养(等于cultivate)
                                          -------------------------------------------

                                          1. a particular society at a particular time and place
                                          2. the tastes in art and manners that are favored by a social group
                                          3. all the knowledge and values shared by a society
                                          4. (biology) the growing of microorganisms in a nutrient medium (such as gelatin or agar)
                                          5. a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality

                                            22

                                            deform

                                            vt. 使变形;使成畸形
                                            vi. 变形;变畸形
                                            adj. 畸形的;丑陋的
                                            -------------------------------------------

                                            1. make formless
                                            2. twist and press out of shape
                                            3. cause (a plastic object) to assume a crooked or angular form
                                            4. become misshapen
                                            5. alter the shape of (something) by stress

                                              23

                                              degree

                                              n. 程度,等级;度;学位;阶层
                                              -------------------------------------------

                                              1. a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality
                                              2. a specific identifiable position in a continuum or series or especially in a process
                                              3. an award conferred by a college or university signifying that the recipient has satisfactorily completed a course of study
                                              4. a unit of temperature on a specified scale
                                              5. a measure for arcs and angles

                                                24

                                                distribution

                                                n. 分布;分配
                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                1. (statistics) an arrangement of values of a variable showing their observed or theoretical frequency of occurrence
                                                2. the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume
                                                3. the act of distributing or spreading or apportioning
                                                4. the commercial activity of transporting and selling goods from a producer to a consumer

                                                  25

                                                  disturb

                                                  vt. 打扰;妨碍;使不安;弄乱;使恼怒
                                                  vi. 打扰;妨碍
                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                  1. move deeply
                                                  2. change the arrangement or position of
                                                  3. tamper with
                                                  4. destroy the peace or tranquility of
                                                  5. damage as if by shaking or jarring

                                                    26

                                                    drought

                                                    n. 干旱;缺乏
                                                    n. (Drought)人名;(英)德劳特
                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                    1. a shortage of rainfall
                                                    2. a prolonged shortage

                                                      27

                                                      economic

                                                      adj. 经济的,经济上的;经济学的
                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                      1. of or relating to an economy, the system of production and management of material wealth
                                                      2. of or relating to the science of economics
                                                      3. concerned with worldly necessities of life (especially money)
                                                      4. financially rewarding
                                                      5. using the minimum of time or resources necessary for effectiveness

                                                        28

                                                        ecosystem

                                                        n. 生态系统
                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                        1. a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment

                                                          29

                                                          engineering

                                                          n. 工程,工程学
                                                          v. 设计;管理(engineer的ing形式);建造
                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                          1. the practical application of science to commerce or industry
                                                          2. the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems
                                                          3. a room (as on a ship) in which the engine is located

                                                            30

                                                            entail

                                                            vt. 使需要,必需;承担;遗传给;蕴含
                                                            n. 引起;需要;继承
                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                            1. land received by fee tail
                                                            2. the act of entailing property; the creation of a fee tail from a fee simple
                                                            3. have as a logical consequence
                                                            4. impose, involve, or imply as a necessary accompaniment or result
                                                            5. limit the inheritance of property to a specific class of heirs

                                                              31

                                                              essential

                                                              adj. 基本的;必要的;本质的;精华的
                                                              n. 本质;要素;要点;必需品
                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                              1. anything indispensable
                                                              2. absolutely necessary; vitally necessary
                                                              3. basic and fundamental
                                                              4. of the greatest importance
                                                              5. being or relating to or containing the essence of a plant etc

                                                                32

                                                                evaluate

                                                                vt. 评价;估价;求…的值
                                                                vi. 评价;估价
                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                1. place a value on; judge the worth of something
                                                                2. form a critical opinion of

                                                                  33

                                                                  evaporate

                                                                  vt. 使……蒸发;使……脱水;使……消失
                                                                  vi. 蒸发,挥发;消失,失踪
                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                  1. lose or cause to lose liquid by vaporization leaving a more concentrated residue
                                                                  2. cause to change into a vapor
                                                                  3. change into a vapor

                                                                    34

                                                                    exert

                                                                    vt. 运用,发挥;施以影响
                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                    1. put to use
                                                                    2. have and exercise
                                                                    3. make a great effort at a mental or physical task

                                                                      35

                                                                      explode

                                                                      vi. 爆炸,爆发;激增
                                                                      vt. 使爆炸;爆炸;推翻
                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                      1. cause to burst with a violent release of energy
                                                                      2. burst outward, usually with noise
                                                                      3. show a violent emotional reaction
                                                                      4. be unleashed; emerge with violence or noise
                                                                      5. destroy by exploding

                                                                        36

                                                                        extravagant

                                                                        adj. 奢侈的;浪费的;过度的;放纵的
                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                        1. unrestrained, especially with regard to feelings
                                                                        2. recklessly wasteful

                                                                          37

                                                                          facet

                                                                          n. 面;方面;小平面
                                                                          vt. 在…上琢面
                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                          1. a distinct feature or element in a problem
                                                                          2. a smooth surface (as of a bone or cut gemstone)

                                                                            38

                                                                            falcon

                                                                            n. [鸟] 猎鹰;[鸟] 隼
                                                                            n. (Falcon)人名;(法、意、西、葡、罗、瑞典)法尔孔;(英)福尔肯
                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                            1. diurnal birds of prey having long pointed powerful wings adapted for swift flight
                                                                            2. hunt with falcons

                                                                              39

                                                                              fiction

                                                                              n. 小说;虚构,编造;谎言
                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                              1. a literary work based on the imagination and not necessarily on fact
                                                                              2. a deliberately false or improbable account

                                                                                40

                                                                                fray

                                                                                n. 争论;打架;磨损处
                                                                                vt. 使磨损;变得令人紧张、急躁
                                                                                vi. 被磨损
                                                                                n. (Fray)人名;(法)弗雷;(德)弗赖;(匈)弗劳伊
                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                1. a noisy fight
                                                                                2. wear away by rubbing
                                                                                3. cause friction

                                                                                  41

                                                                                  fuse

                                                                                  vi. 融合;熔化,熔融
                                                                                  vt. 使融合;使熔化,使熔融
                                                                                  n. 保险丝,熔线;导火线,雷管
                                                                                  n. (Fuse)人名;(意)富塞;(法)菲斯
                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                  1. an electrical device that can interrupt the flow of electrical current when it is overloaded
                                                                                  2. any igniter that is used to initiate the burning of a propellant
                                                                                  3. mix together different elements
                                                                                  4. become plastic or fluid or liquefied from heat
                                                                                  5. equip with a fuse; provide with a fuse

                                                                                    42

                                                                                    image

                                                                                    n. 影像;想象;肖像;偶像
                                                                                    vt. 想象;反映;象征;作…的像
                                                                                    n. (Image)人名;(法)伊马热
                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                    1. an iconic mental representation
                                                                                    2. a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface
                                                                                    3. (Jungian psychology) a personal facade that one presents to the world
                                                                                    4. a standard or typical example
                                                                                    5. language used in a figurative or nonliteral sense

                                                                                      43

                                                                                      incredible

                                                                                      adj. 难以置信的,惊人的
                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                      1. beyond belief or understanding

                                                                                        44

                                                                                        insert

                                                                                        vt. 插入;嵌入
                                                                                        n. 插入物
                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                        1. a folded section placed between the leaves of another publication
                                                                                        2. an artifact that is inserted or is to be inserted
                                                                                        3. (broadcasting) a local announcement inserted into a network program
                                                                                        4. (film) a still picture that is introduced and that interrupts the action of a film
                                                                                        5. put or introduce into something

                                                                                          45

                                                                                          instead

                                                                                          adv. 代替;反而
                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                          1. in place of, or as an alternative to
                                                                                          2. on the contrary

                                                                                            46

                                                                                            instrumental

                                                                                            adj. 乐器的;有帮助的;仪器的,器械的
                                                                                            n. 器乐曲;工具字,工具格
                                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                                            1. relating to or designed for or performed on musical instruments
                                                                                            2. serving or acting as a means or aid

                                                                                              47

                                                                                              interrupt

                                                                                              vt. 中断;打断;插嘴;妨碍
                                                                                              vi. 打断;打扰
                                                                                              n. 中断
                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                              1. a signal that temporarily stops the execution of a program so that another procedure can be carried out
                                                                                              2. make a break in
                                                                                              3. destroy the peace or tranquility of
                                                                                              4. interfere in someone else's activity
                                                                                              5. terminate

                                                                                                48

                                                                                                isolate

                                                                                                vt. 使隔离;使孤立;使绝缘
                                                                                                n. [生物] 隔离种群
                                                                                                vi. 隔离;孤立
                                                                                                adj. 隔离的;孤立的
                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                1. place or set apart
                                                                                                2. obtain in pure form
                                                                                                3. set apart from others
                                                                                                4. separate (experiences) from the emotions relating to them

                                                                                                  49

                                                                                                  landscape

                                                                                                  n. 风景;风景画;景色;山水画;乡村风景画;地形
                                                                                                  vt. 对…做景观美化,给…做园林美化;从事庭园设计
                                                                                                  vi. 美化(环境等),使景色宜人;从事景观美化工作,做庭园设计师
                                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                  1. an expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view
                                                                                                  2. painting depicting an expanse of natural scenery
                                                                                                  3. a genre of art dealing with the depiction of natural scenery
                                                                                                  4. an extensive mental viewpoint
                                                                                                  5. embellish with plants

                                                                                                    50

                                                                                                    larynx

                                                                                                    n. [解剖] 喉;喉头
                                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                    1. a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea; contains elastic vocal cords that are the source of the vocal tone in speech

                                                                                                      51

                                                                                                      lobby

                                                                                                      n. 大厅;休息室;会客室;游说议员的团体
                                                                                                      vt. 对……进行游说
                                                                                                      vi. 游说议员
                                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                      1. a large entrance or reception room or area
                                                                                                      2. the people who support some common cause or business or principle or sectional interest
                                                                                                      3. a group of people who try actively to influence legislation
                                                                                                      4. detain in conversation by or as if by holding on to the outer garments of; as for political or economic favors

                                                                                                        52

                                                                                                        mechanical

                                                                                                        adj. 机械的;力学的;呆板的;无意识的;手工操作的
                                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                        1. using (or as if using) mechanisms or tools or devices
                                                                                                        2. relating to or concerned with machinery or tools
                                                                                                        3. relating to or governed by or in accordance with mechanics

                                                                                                          53

                                                                                                          mercantile

                                                                                                          adj. 商业的;商人的;重商主义的
                                                                                                          n. 商品
                                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                          1. of or relating to the economic system of mercantilism
                                                                                                          2. profit oriented
                                                                                                          3. relating to or characteristic of trade or traders

                                                                                                            54

                                                                                                            mercury

                                                                                                            n. [化]汞,水银
                                                                                                            [天]水星
                                                                                                            温度表
                                                                                                            精神,元气
                                                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                            1. a heavy silvery toxic univalent and bivalent metallic element; the only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures
                                                                                                            2. (Roman mythology) messenger of Jupiter and god of commerce; counterpart of Greek Hermes
                                                                                                            3. the smallest planet and the nearest to the sun
                                                                                                            4. temperature measured by a mercury thermometer

                                                                                                              55

                                                                                                              opal

                                                                                                              n. 猫眼石,蛋白石;乳白玻璃
                                                                                                              n. (Opal)人名;(英)奥珀尔;(土、法)奥帕尔
                                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                              1. a translucent mineral consisting of hydrated silica of variable color; some varieties are used as gemstones

                                                                                                                56

                                                                                                                originate

                                                                                                                vt. 引起;创作
                                                                                                                vi. 发源;发生;起航
                                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                1. come into existence; take on form or shape
                                                                                                                2. bring into being
                                                                                                                3. begin a trip at a certain point, as of a plane, train, bus, etc.

                                                                                                                  57

                                                                                                                  patent

                                                                                                                  vt. 授予专利;取得…的专利权
                                                                                                                  adj. 专利的;新奇的;显然的
                                                                                                                  n. 专利权;执照;专利品
                                                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                  1. a document granting an inventor sole rights to an invention
                                                                                                                  2. an official document granting a right or privilege
                                                                                                                  3. obtain a patent for
                                                                                                                  4. grant rights to; grant a patent for
                                                                                                                  5. make open to sight or notice

                                                                                                                    58

                                                                                                                    peak

                                                                                                                    n. 山峰;最高点;顶点;帽舌
                                                                                                                    vt. 使达到最高点;使竖起
                                                                                                                    vi. 消瘦;到达最高点;变憔悴
                                                                                                                    adj. 最高的;最大值的
                                                                                                                    n. (Peak)人名;(英)皮克
                                                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                    1. the most extreme possible amount or value
                                                                                                                    2. the period of greatest prosperity or productivity
                                                                                                                    3. the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development
                                                                                                                    4. the top point of a mountain or hill
                                                                                                                    5. a V shape

                                                                                                                      59

                                                                                                                      pertain

                                                                                                                      vi. 属于;关于;适合
                                                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                      1. have to do with or be relevant to
                                                                                                                      2. be a part or attribute of

                                                                                                                        60

                                                                                                                        plank

                                                                                                                        n. [木] 厚木板;支架;政纲条款
                                                                                                                        vt. 在…上铺板;撂下;立刻付款
                                                                                                                        n. (Plank)人名;(英、俄、芬、德)普兰克
                                                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                        1. a stout length of sawn timber; made in a wide variety of sizes and used for many purposes
                                                                                                                        2. an endorsed policy in the platform of a political party
                                                                                                                        3. cover with planks
                                                                                                                        4. set (something or oneself) down with or as if with a noise
                                                                                                                        5. cook and serve on a plank

                                                                                                                          61

                                                                                                                          plankton

                                                                                                                          n. 浮游生物(总称)
                                                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                          1. the aggregate of small plant and animal organisms that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water

                                                                                                                            62

                                                                                                                            plate

                                                                                                                            n. 碟;金属板;金属牌;感光底片
                                                                                                                            vt. 电镀;给…装甲
                                                                                                                            n. (Plate)人名;(英、德、俄、西、意、瑞典)普拉特
                                                                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                            1. a sheet of metal or wood or glass or plastic
                                                                                                                            2. (baseball) base consisting of a rubber slab where the batter stands; it must be touched by a base runner in order to score
                                                                                                                            3. a full-page illustration (usually on slick paper)
                                                                                                                            4. dish on which food is served or from which food is eaten
                                                                                                                            5. the quantity contained in a plate

                                                                                                                              63

                                                                                                                              polar

                                                                                                                              adj. 极地的;两极的;正好相反的
                                                                                                                              n. 极面;极线
                                                                                                                              n. (Polar)人名;(德、西)波拉尔
                                                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                              1. having a pair of equal and opposite charges
                                                                                                                              2. characterized by opposite extremes; completely opposed
                                                                                                                              3. located at or near or coming from the earth's poles
                                                                                                                              4. of or existing at or near a geographical pole or within the Arctic or Antarctic Circles
                                                                                                                              5. extremely cold

                                                                                                                                64

                                                                                                                                pollutant

                                                                                                                                n. 污染物
                                                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                1. waste matter that contaminates the water or air or soil

                                                                                                                                  65

                                                                                                                                  procedure

                                                                                                                                  n. 程序,手续;步骤
                                                                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                  1. a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
                                                                                                                                  2. a process or series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work
                                                                                                                                  3. a set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program
                                                                                                                                  4. a mode of conducting legal and parliamentary proceedings

                                                                                                                                    66

                                                                                                                                    profession

                                                                                                                                    n. 职业,专业;声明,宣布,表白
                                                                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                    1. the body of people in a learned occupation
                                                                                                                                    2. an occupation requiring special education (especially in the liberal arts or sciences)
                                                                                                                                    3. an open avowal (true or false) of some belief or opinion
                                                                                                                                    4. affirmation of acceptance of some religion or faith

                                                                                                                                      67

                                                                                                                                      pupil

                                                                                                                                      n. 学生;[解剖] 瞳孔;未成年人
                                                                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                      1. a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution
                                                                                                                                      2. contractile aperture in the iris of the eye
                                                                                                                                      3. a young person attending school (up through senior high school)

                                                                                                                                        68

                                                                                                                                        reef

                                                                                                                                        n. 暗礁;[地质] 矿脉;收帆
                                                                                                                                        vt. 收帆;缩帆
                                                                                                                                        vi. 缩帆;收帆
                                                                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                        1. a submerged ridge of rock or coral near the surface of the water
                                                                                                                                        2. a rocky region in the southern Transvaal in northeastern South Africa; contains rich gold deposits and coal and manganese
                                                                                                                                        3. lower and bring partially inboard
                                                                                                                                        4. roll up (a portion of a sail) in order to reduce its area
                                                                                                                                        5. reduce (a sail) by taking in a reef

                                                                                                                                          69

                                                                                                                                          respective

                                                                                                                                          adj. 分别的,各自的
                                                                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                          1. considered individually

                                                                                                                                            70

                                                                                                                                            rush

                                                                                                                                            n. 冲进;匆促;急流;灯心草
                                                                                                                                            adj. 急需的
                                                                                                                                            vt. 使冲;突袭;匆忙地做;飞跃
                                                                                                                                            vi. 冲;奔;闯;赶紧;涌现
                                                                                                                                            n. (Rush)人名;(英)拉什
                                                                                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                            1. the act of moving hurriedly and in a careless manner
                                                                                                                                            2. a sudden forceful flow
                                                                                                                                            3. grasslike plants growing in wet places and having cylindrical often hollow stems
                                                                                                                                            4. physician and American Revolutionary leader; signer of the Declaration of Independence (1745-1813)
                                                                                                                                            5. the swift release of a store of affective force

                                                                                                                                              71

                                                                                                                                              scratch

                                                                                                                                              n. 擦伤;抓痕;刮擦声;乱写
                                                                                                                                              adj. 打草稿用的;凑合的;碰巧的
                                                                                                                                              vt. 抓;刮;挖出;乱涂
                                                                                                                                              vi. 抓;搔;发刮擦声;勉强糊口;退出比赛
                                                                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                              1. an abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off
                                                                                                                                              2. a depression scratched or carved into a surface
                                                                                                                                              3. informal terms for money
                                                                                                                                              4. dry mash for poultry
                                                                                                                                              5. a harsh noise made by scraping

                                                                                                                                                72

                                                                                                                                                shrivel

                                                                                                                                                vi. 枯萎;皱缩
                                                                                                                                                vt. 使枯萎;使皱缩;使束手无策
                                                                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                1. wither, as with a loss of moisture
                                                                                                                                                2. decrease in size, range, or extent

                                                                                                                                                  73

                                                                                                                                                  sinuous

                                                                                                                                                  adj. 蜿蜒的;弯曲的;迂回的
                                                                                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                  1. curved or curving in and out

                                                                                                                                                    74

                                                                                                                                                    stack

                                                                                                                                                    n. 堆;堆叠
                                                                                                                                                    vt. 使堆叠;把…堆积起来
                                                                                                                                                    vi. 堆积,堆叠
                                                                                                                                                    n. (Stack)人名;(英)斯塔克;(德)施塔克
                                                                                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                    1. an orderly pile
                                                                                                                                                    2. (often followed by `of') a large number or amount or extent
                                                                                                                                                    3. a list in which the next item to be removed is the item most recently stored (LIFO)
                                                                                                                                                    4. a large tall chimney through which combustion gases and smoke can be evacuated
                                                                                                                                                    5. a storage device that handles data so that the next item to be retrieved is the item most recently stored (LIFO)

                                                                                                                                                      75

                                                                                                                                                      stew

                                                                                                                                                      vt. 炖,炖汤;焖;忧虑;受闷热
                                                                                                                                                      n. 炖,炖汤;烦恼;闷热;鱼塘
                                                                                                                                                      vi. 炖,炖汤;焖;受闷热;忧虑
                                                                                                                                                      n. (Stew)人名;(英)斯图
                                                                                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                      1. agitation resulting from active worry
                                                                                                                                                      2. food prepared by stewing especially meat or fish with vegetables
                                                                                                                                                      3. be in a huff; be silent or sullen
                                                                                                                                                      4. bear a grudge; harbor ill feelings
                                                                                                                                                      5. cook slowly and for a long time in liquid

                                                                                                                                                        76

                                                                                                                                                        subtract

                                                                                                                                                        vt. 减去;扣掉
                                                                                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                        1. make a subtraction

                                                                                                                                                          77

                                                                                                                                                          supply

                                                                                                                                                          n. 供给,补给;供应品
                                                                                                                                                          vt. 供给,提供;补充
                                                                                                                                                          vi. 供给;替代
                                                                                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                          1. an amount of something available for use
                                                                                                                                                          2. offering goods and services for sale
                                                                                                                                                          3. the activity of supplying or providing something
                                                                                                                                                          4. provide or furnish with
                                                                                                                                                          5. circulate or distribute or equip with

                                                                                                                                                            78

                                                                                                                                                            survive

                                                                                                                                                            vt. 幸存;生还;幸免于;比...活得长
                                                                                                                                                            vi. 幸存;活下来
                                                                                                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                            1. continue to live; endure or last
                                                                                                                                                            2. continue in existence after (an adversity, etc.)
                                                                                                                                                            3. support oneself
                                                                                                                                                            4. live longer than

                                                                                                                                                              79

                                                                                                                                                              willful

                                                                                                                                                              adj. 有意的;任性的;故意的
                                                                                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                              1. done by design
                                                                                                                                                              2. habitually disposed to disobedience and opposition

                                                                                                                                                                80

                                                                                                                                                                wreck

                                                                                                                                                                n. 破坏;失事;残骸;失去健康的人
                                                                                                                                                                vt. 破坏;使失事;拆毁
                                                                                                                                                                vi. 失事;营救失事船只
                                                                                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                                1. something or someone that has suffered ruin or dilapidation
                                                                                                                                                                2. an accident that destroys a ship at sea
                                                                                                                                                                3. a serious accident (usually involving one or more vehicles)
                                                                                                                                                                4. a ship that has been destroyed at sea
                                                                                                                                                                5. smash or break forcefully