List-26 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in List-26 Deck (77):
1

acid

n. 酸;迷幻药
adj. 酸的;讽刺的;刻薄的
-------------------------------------------

  1. any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt
  2. street name for lysergic acid diethylamide
  3. harsh or corrosive in tone
  4. being sour to the taste
  5. having the characteristics of an acid

    2

    agile

    adj. 敏捷的;机敏的;活泼的
    -------------------------------------------

    1. moving quickly and lightly
    2. mentally quick

      3

      allocation

      n. 分配,配置;安置
      -------------------------------------------

      1. a share set aside for a specific purpose
      2. the act of distributing by allotting or apportioning; distribution according to a plan
      3. (computer science) the assignment of particular areas of a magnetic disk to particular data or instructions

        4

        attorney

        n. 律师;代理人
        -------------------------------------------

        1. a professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives legal advice

          5

          bias

          n. 偏见;偏爱;斜纹;乖离率
          vt. 使存偏见
          adj. 偏斜的
          adv. 偏斜地
          n. (Bias)人名;(法、德、葡、喀)比亚斯;(英)拜厄斯
          -------------------------------------------

          1. a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation
          2. a line or cut across a fabric that is not at right angles to a side of the fabric
          3. influence in an unfair way
          4. cause to be biased
          5. slanting diagonally across the grain of a fabric

            6

            bluff

            n. 吓唬;绝壁;断崖
            vt. 吓唬;愚弄
            vi. 吓唬
            adj. 直率的;陡峭的
            -------------------------------------------

            1. a high steep bank (usually formed by river erosion)
            2. pretense that your position is stronger than it really is
            3. the act of bluffing in poker; deception by a false show of confidence in the strength of your cards
            4. deceive an opponent by a bold bet on an inferior hand with the result that the opponent withdraws a winning hand
            5. frighten someone by pretending to be stronger than one really is

              7

              bookstore

              n. 书店(等于bookshop)
              -------------------------------------------

              1. a shop where books are sold

                8

                captive

                adj. 被俘虏的;被迷住的
                n. 俘虏;迷恋者
                -------------------------------------------

                1. a person who is confined; especially a prisoner of war
                2. an animal that is confined
                3. a person held in the grip of a strong emotion or passion
                4. in captivity
                5. giving or marked by complete attention to

                  9

                  cease

                  vi. 停止;终了
                  vt. 停止;结束
                  n. 停止
                  -------------------------------------------

                  1. (`cease' is a noun only in the phrase `without cease') end
                  2. put an end to a state or an activity
                  3. have an end, in a temporal, spatial, or quantitative sense; either spatial or metaphorical

                    10

                    ceremonial

                    adj. 仪式的;正式的,礼仪的
                    n. 仪式,礼节
                    -------------------------------------------

                    1. a formal event performed on a special occasion
                    2. marked by pomp or ceremony or formality

                      11

                      claim

                      vi. 提出要求
                      vt. 要求;声称;需要;认领
                      n. 要求;声称;索赔;断言;值得
                      -------------------------------------------

                      1. an assertion of a right (as to money or property)
                      2. an assertion that something is true or factual
                      3. demand for something as rightful or due
                      4. an informal right to something
                      5. an established or recognized right

                        12

                        club

                        n. 俱乐部,社团;夜总会;棍棒;(扑克牌中的)梅花
                        vt. 用棍棒打;募集
                        vi. 集资;组成俱乐部
                        adj. 俱乐部的
                        n. (Club)人名;(英)克拉布
                        -------------------------------------------

                        1. a team of professional baseball players who play and travel together
                        2. a formal association of people with similar interests
                        3. stout stick that is larger at one end
                        4. a building that is occupied by a social club
                        5. golf equipment used by a golfer to hit a golf ball

                          13

                          concentration

                          n. 浓度;集中;浓缩;专心;集合
                          -------------------------------------------

                          1. (chemistry) the strength of a solution; number of molecules of a substance in a given volume (expressed as moles/cubic meter)
                          2. the spatial property of being crowded together
                          3. strengthening the amount of a substance in a unit amount of another substance (as of a solute in a mixture) by removing the other substance
                          4. increase in density
                          5. complete attention; intense mental effort

                            14

                            deciduous

                            adj. 落叶性的,脱落性的;非永久性的
                            -------------------------------------------

                            1. (of plants and shrubs) shedding foliage at the end of the growing season
                            2. (of teeth, antlers, etc.) being shed at the end of a period of growth

                              15

                              deduct

                              vt. 扣除,减去;演绎
                              -------------------------------------------

                              1. make a subtraction
                              2. retain and refrain from disbursing; of payments
                              3. reason by deduction; establish by deduction

                                16

                                definite

                                adj. 一定的;确切的
                                -------------------------------------------

                                1. precise; explicit and clearly defined
                                2. known for certain

                                  17

                                  dense

                                  adj. 稠密的;浓厚的;愚钝的
                                  -------------------------------------------

                                  1. permitting little if any light to pass through because of denseness of matter
                                  2. having component parts closely crowded together
                                  3. hard to pass through because of dense growth
                                  4. having high relative density or specific gravity
                                  5. slow to learn or understand; lacking intellectual acuity

                                    18

                                    deteriorate

                                    vi. 恶化,变坏
                                    vt. 恶化
                                    -------------------------------------------

                                    1. become worse or disintegrate
                                    2. grow worse

                                      19

                                      discipline

                                      n. 学科;纪律;训练;惩罚
                                      vt. 训练,训导;惩戒
                                      -------------------------------------------

                                      1. a branch of knowledge
                                      2. a system of rules of conduct or method of practice
                                      3. the trait of being well behaved
                                      4. training to improve strength or self-control
                                      5. the act of punishing

                                        20

                                        domain

                                        n. 领域;域名;产业;地产
                                        n. (Domain)人名;(英、法)多曼
                                        -------------------------------------------

                                        1. a particular environment or walk of life
                                        2. territory over which rule or control is exercised
                                        3. the set of values of the independent variable for which a function is defined
                                        4. people in general; especially a distinctive group of people with some shared interest
                                        5. a knowledge domain that you are interested in or are communicating about

                                          21

                                          economical

                                          adj. 经济的;节约的;合算的
                                          -------------------------------------------

                                          1. using the minimum of time or resources necessary for effectiveness
                                          2. of or relating to an economy, the system of production and management of material wealth
                                          3. avoiding waste

                                            22

                                            epic

                                            adj. 史诗的,叙事诗的
                                            n. 史诗;叙事诗;史诗般的作品
                                            -------------------------------------------

                                            1. a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
                                            2. very imposing or impressive; surpassing the ordinary (especially in size or scale)
                                            3. constituting or having to do with or suggestive of a literary epic

                                              23

                                              erratic

                                              adj. 不稳定的;古怪的
                                              n. 漂泊无定的人;古怪的人
                                              -------------------------------------------

                                              1. having no fixed course
                                              2. liable to sudden unpredictable change
                                              3. likely to perform unpredictably

                                                24

                                                evident

                                                adj. 明显的;明白的
                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                1. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment
                                                2. capable of being seen or noticed

                                                  25

                                                  evoke

                                                  vt. 引起,唤起;博得
                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                  1. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
                                                  2. evoke or provoke to appear or occur
                                                  3. deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning)
                                                  4. summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic
                                                  5. call to mind

                                                    26

                                                    experimental

                                                    adj. 实验的;根据实验的;试验性的
                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                    1. relating to or based on experiment
                                                    2. relying on observation or experiment
                                                    3. of the nature of or undergoing an experiment

                                                      27

                                                      explosive

                                                      adj. 爆炸的;爆炸性的;爆发性的
                                                      n. 炸药;爆炸物
                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                      1. a chemical substance that undergoes a rapid chemical change (with the production of gas) on being heated or struck
                                                      2. serving to explode or characterized by explosion or sudden outburst
                                                      3. liable to lead to sudden change or violence
                                                      4. sudden and loud

                                                        28

                                                        extraordinary

                                                        adj. 非凡的;特别的;离奇的;临时的;特派的
                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                        1. beyond what is ordinary or usual; highly unusual or exceptional or remarkable
                                                        2. far more than usual or expected
                                                        3. (of an official) serving an unusual or special function in addition to those of the regular officials

                                                          29

                                                          foreshorten

                                                          vt. 透视缩短;节略;缩小深度而画;省略
                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                          1. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements
                                                          2. shorten lines in a drawing so as to create an illusion of depth

                                                            30

                                                            frustrate

                                                            vt. 挫败;阻挠;使感到灰心
                                                            vi. 失败;受挫
                                                            adj. 挫败的;无益的
                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                            1. hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of
                                                            2. treat cruelly

                                                              31

                                                              germ

                                                              n. [植] 胚芽,萌芽;细菌
                                                              vi. 萌芽
                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                              1. anything that provides inspiration for later work
                                                              2. a small apparently simple structure (as a fertilized egg) from which new tissue can develop into a complete organism
                                                              3. a minute life form (especially a disease-causing bacterium); the term is not in technical use

                                                                32

                                                                gourd

                                                                n. 葫芦,葫芦属植物;脑瓜
                                                                n. (Gourd)人名;(法)古尔;(英)古尔德
                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                1. bottle made from the dried shell of a bottle gourd
                                                                2. any of numerous inedible fruits with hard rinds
                                                                3. any vine of the family Cucurbitaceae that bears fruits with hard rinds

                                                                  33

                                                                  groan

                                                                  vi. 呻吟;抱怨;发吱嘎声
                                                                  vt. 呻吟;抱怨
                                                                  n. 呻吟;叹息;吱嘎声
                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                  1. an utterance expressing pain or disapproval
                                                                  2. indicate pain, discomfort, or displeasure

                                                                    34

                                                                    hoe

                                                                    vt. 锄,用锄头
                                                                    vi. 用锄耕地
                                                                    n. 锄头
                                                                    n. (Hoe)人名;(英)霍;(越)槐
                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                    1. a tool with a flat blade attached at right angles to a long handle
                                                                    2. dig with a hoe

                                                                      35

                                                                      hummingbird

                                                                      n. 蜂鸟
                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                      1. tiny American bird having brilliant iridescent plumage and long slender bills; wings are specialized for vibrating flight

                                                                        36

                                                                        influx

                                                                        n. 流入;汇集;河流的汇集处
                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                        1. the process of flowing in

                                                                          37

                                                                          ingenious

                                                                          adj. 有独创性的;机灵的,精制的;心灵手巧的
                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                          1. (used of persons or artifacts) marked by independence and creativity in thought or action
                                                                          2. skillful (or showing skill) in adapting means to ends
                                                                          3. showing inventiveness and skill

                                                                            38

                                                                            innovation

                                                                            n. 创新,革新;新方法
                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                            1. a creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and experimentation
                                                                            2. the creation of something in the mind
                                                                            3. the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new

                                                                              39

                                                                              intact

                                                                              adj. 完整的;原封不动的;未受损伤的
                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                              1. constituting the undiminished entirety; lacking nothing essential especially not damaged
                                                                              2. not impaired or diminished in any way
                                                                              3. (of a woman) having the hymen unbroken
                                                                              4. (used of domestic animals) sexually competent
                                                                              5. undamaged in any way; whole

                                                                                40

                                                                                intent

                                                                                n. 意图;目的;含义
                                                                                adj. 专心的;急切的;坚决的
                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                1. an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions
                                                                                2. the intended meaning of a communication
                                                                                3. giving or marked by complete attention to

                                                                                  41

                                                                                  jeopardize

                                                                                  vt. 危害;使陷危地;使受危困
                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                  1. pose a threat to; present a danger to
                                                                                  2. put at risk

                                                                                    42

                                                                                    leading

                                                                                    adj. 领导的;主要的
                                                                                    n. 领导;铅板;行距
                                                                                    v. 领导(lead的ing形式)
                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                    1. thin strip of metal used to separate lines of type in printing
                                                                                    2. the activity of leading
                                                                                    3. indicating the most important performer or role
                                                                                    4. going or proceeding or going in advance; showing the way
                                                                                    5. greatest in importance or degree or significance or achievement

                                                                                      43

                                                                                      literally

                                                                                      adv. 照字面地;逐字地;不夸张地;正确地;简直
                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                      1. in a literal sense
                                                                                      2. (intensifier before a figurative expression) without exaggeration

                                                                                        44

                                                                                        luminosity

                                                                                        n. [光][天] 光度;光明;光辉
                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                        1. the quality of being luminous; emitting or reflecting light

                                                                                          45

                                                                                          maintain

                                                                                          vt. 维持;继续;维修;主张;供养
                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                          1. keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g.,
                                                                                          2. keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction
                                                                                          3. supply with necessities and support
                                                                                          4. state categorically
                                                                                          5. have and exercise

                                                                                            46

                                                                                            millennium

                                                                                            n. 千年期,千禧年;一千年,千年纪念;太平盛世,黄金时代
                                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                                            1. a span of 1000 years
                                                                                            2. (New Testament) in Revelations it is foretold that those faithful to Jesus will reign with Jesus over the earth for a thousand years; the meaning of these words have been much debated; some denominations (e.g. Jehovah's Witnesses) expect it to be a thousand years of justice and peace and happiness
                                                                                            3. the 1000th anniversary (or the celebration of it)

                                                                                              47

                                                                                              motor

                                                                                              n. 发动机,马达;汽车
                                                                                              adj. 汽车的;机动的
                                                                                              vi. 乘汽车
                                                                                              vt. 以汽车载运
                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                              1. machine that converts other forms of energy into mechanical energy and so imparts motion
                                                                                              2. a nonspecific agent that imparts motion
                                                                                              3. travel or be transported in a vehicle
                                                                                              4. conveying information to the muscles from the CNS
                                                                                              5. causing or able to cause motion

                                                                                                48

                                                                                                neolithic

                                                                                                adj. [古] 新石器时代的;早先的
                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                1. latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the middle east (but later elsewhere)
                                                                                                2. of or relating to the most recent period of the Stone Age (following the mesolithic)

                                                                                                  49

                                                                                                  nitrogen

                                                                                                  n. [化学] 氮
                                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                  1. a common nonmetallic element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless inert diatomic gas; constitutes 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume; a constituent of all living tissues

                                                                                                    50

                                                                                                    notify

                                                                                                    vt. 通告,通知;公布
                                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                    1. inform (somebody) of something

                                                                                                      51

                                                                                                      poverty

                                                                                                      n. 贫困;困难;缺少;低劣
                                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                      1. the state of having little or no money and few or no material possessions

                                                                                                        52

                                                                                                        pretty

                                                                                                        adj. 漂亮的;可爱的;优美的
                                                                                                        adv. 相当地;颇
                                                                                                        n. 漂亮的人
                                                                                                        n. (Pretty)人名;(英)普雷蒂
                                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                        1. pleasing by delicacy or grace; not imposing
                                                                                                        2. (used ironically) unexpectedly bad
                                                                                                        3. used as an intensifier (`jolly' is used informally in Britain)

                                                                                                          53

                                                                                                          promising

                                                                                                          adj. 有希望的,有前途的
                                                                                                          v. 许诺,答应(promise的现在分词形式)
                                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                          1. showing possibility of achievement or excellence
                                                                                                          2. full or promise

                                                                                                            54

                                                                                                            promptly

                                                                                                            adv. 迅速地;立即地;敏捷地
                                                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                            1. with little or no delay
                                                                                                            2. in a punctual manner
                                                                                                            3. at once (usually modifies an undesirable occurrence)

                                                                                                              55

                                                                                                              reception

                                                                                                              n. 接待;接收;招待会;感受;反应
                                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                              1. the manner in which something is greeted
                                                                                                              2. a formal party of people; as after a wedding
                                                                                                              3. quality or fidelity of a received broadcast
                                                                                                              4. the act of receiving
                                                                                                              5. (American football) the act of catching a pass in football

                                                                                                                56

                                                                                                                refund

                                                                                                                vi. 退还;偿还,归还
                                                                                                                vt. 退还;偿还;付还
                                                                                                                n. 退款;偿还,偿还额
                                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                1. money returned to a payer
                                                                                                                2. the act of returning money received previously
                                                                                                                3. pay back

                                                                                                                  57

                                                                                                                  relay

                                                                                                                  vi. 转播;接替
                                                                                                                  n. [电] 继电器;接替,接替人员;驿马
                                                                                                                  vt. 转播;使接替;分程传递
                                                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                  1. the act of passing something along from one person or group to another
                                                                                                                  2. a crew of workers who relieve another crew
                                                                                                                  3. a fresh team to relieve weary draft animals
                                                                                                                  4. electrical device such that current flowing through it in one circuit can switch on and off a current in a second circuit
                                                                                                                  5. pass along

                                                                                                                    58

                                                                                                                    repertory

                                                                                                                    n. 储备;仓库;全部剧目
                                                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                    1. a storehouse where a stock of things is kept
                                                                                                                    2. the entire range of skills or aptitudes or devices used in a particular field or occupation
                                                                                                                    3. a collection of works (plays, songs, operas, ballets) that an artist or company can perform and do perform for short intervals on a regular schedule

                                                                                                                      59

                                                                                                                      replace

                                                                                                                      vt. 取代,代替;替换,更换;归还,偿还;把…放回原处
                                                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                      1. substitute a person or thing for (another that is broken or inefficient or lost or no longer working or yielding what is expected)
                                                                                                                      2. take the place or move into the position of
                                                                                                                      3. put in the place of another; switch seemingly equivalent items
                                                                                                                      4. put something back where it belongs

                                                                                                                        60

                                                                                                                        restore

                                                                                                                        vt. 恢复;修复;归还
                                                                                                                        vi. 恢复;还原
                                                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                        1. return to its original or usable and functioning condition
                                                                                                                        2. return to life; get or give new life or energy
                                                                                                                        3. give or bring back
                                                                                                                        4. restore by replacing a part or putting together what is torn or broken
                                                                                                                        5. bring back into original existence, use, function, or position

                                                                                                                          61

                                                                                                                          retail

                                                                                                                          vt. 零售;转述
                                                                                                                          vi. 零售
                                                                                                                          n. 零售
                                                                                                                          adv. 以零售方式
                                                                                                                          adj. 零售的
                                                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                          1. the selling of goods to consumers; usually in small quantities and not for resale
                                                                                                                          2. be sold at the retail level
                                                                                                                          3. sell on the retail market
                                                                                                                          4. selling or related to selling direct to the consumer
                                                                                                                          5. at a retail price

                                                                                                                            62

                                                                                                                            ripe

                                                                                                                            adj. 熟的,成熟的;时机成熟的
                                                                                                                            vt. 搜查;调查
                                                                                                                            vi. 进行搜查
                                                                                                                            n. (Ripe)人名;(意、瑞典)里佩
                                                                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                            1. fully developed or matured and ready to be eaten or used
                                                                                                                            2. fully prepared or eager
                                                                                                                            3. most suitable or right for a particular purpose
                                                                                                                            4. at the highest point of development especially in judgment or knowledge
                                                                                                                            5. far along in time

                                                                                                                              63

                                                                                                                              saving

                                                                                                                              n. 节约;挽救;存款
                                                                                                                              adj. 节约的;挽救的;补偿的;保留的
                                                                                                                              prep. 考虑到;除...之外
                                                                                                                              n. (Saving)人名;(瑞典)萨温
                                                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                              1. an act of economizing; reduction in cost
                                                                                                                              2. recovery or preservation from loss or danger
                                                                                                                              3. the activity of protecting something from loss or danger
                                                                                                                              4. bringing about salvation or redemption from sin
                                                                                                                              5. characterized by thriftiness

                                                                                                                                64

                                                                                                                                seismograph

                                                                                                                                n. 地震仪
                                                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                1. a measuring instrument for detecting and measuring the intensity and direction and duration of movements of the ground (as an earthquake)

                                                                                                                                  65

                                                                                                                                  sequence

                                                                                                                                  n. [数][计] 序列;顺序;续发事件
                                                                                                                                  vt. 按顺序排好
                                                                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                  1. serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern
                                                                                                                                  2. a following of one thing after another in time
                                                                                                                                  3. film consisting of a succession of related shots that develop a given subject in a movie
                                                                                                                                  4. the action of following in order
                                                                                                                                  5. several repetitions of a melodic phrase in different keys

                                                                                                                                    66

                                                                                                                                    sieve

                                                                                                                                    n. [粮食][矿业] 筛子;滤网;不能保守秘密的人
                                                                                                                                    vt. 筛;滤
                                                                                                                                    vi. 筛;滤
                                                                                                                                    n. (Sieve)人名;(英)西夫
                                                                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                    1. a strainer for separating lumps from powdered material or grading particles
                                                                                                                                    2. examine in order to test suitability
                                                                                                                                    3. check and sort carefully
                                                                                                                                    4. separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements
                                                                                                                                    5. distinguish and separate out

                                                                                                                                      67

                                                                                                                                      soda

                                                                                                                                      n. 苏打;碳酸水
                                                                                                                                      n. (Soda)人名;(意)索达;(日)曾田(姓)
                                                                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                      1. a sodium salt of carbonic acid; used in making soap powders and glass and paper
                                                                                                                                      2. a sweet drink containing carbonated water and flavoring

                                                                                                                                        68

                                                                                                                                        spectrum

                                                                                                                                        n. 光谱;频谱;范围;余象
                                                                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                        1. an ordered array of the components of an emission or wave
                                                                                                                                        2. broad range of related values or qualities or ideas or activities

                                                                                                                                          69

                                                                                                                                          spew

                                                                                                                                          vt. 喷出;呕吐
                                                                                                                                          vi. 喷涌;呕吐
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                                                                                                                                          1. expel or eject (saliva or phlegm or sputum) from the mouth
                                                                                                                                          2. eject or send out in large quantities, also metaphorical
                                                                                                                                          3. eject the contents of the stomach through the mouth

                                                                                                                                            70

                                                                                                                                            sponge

                                                                                                                                            vt. 抹掉;用海绵擦拭;讨得
                                                                                                                                            vi. 采集海绵;过寄生生活;海绵般地吸收
                                                                                                                                            n. 海绵;海绵状物
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                                                                                                                                            1. a porous mass of interlacing fibers the forms the internal skeleton of various marine animals and usable to absorb water or any porous rubber or cellulose product similarly used
                                                                                                                                            2. someone able to acquire new knowledge and skills rapidly and easily
                                                                                                                                            3. a follower who hangs around a host (without benefit to the host) in hope of gain or advantage
                                                                                                                                            4. primitive multicellular marine animal whose porous body is supported by a fibrous skeletal framework; usually occurs in sessile colonies
                                                                                                                                            5. wipe with a sponge, so as to clean or moisten

                                                                                                                                              71

                                                                                                                                              staggered

                                                                                                                                              adj. 错列的;吃惊的
                                                                                                                                              v. 蹒跚(stagger的过去式和过去分词)
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                                                                                                                                              1. an unsteady uneven gait
                                                                                                                                              2. walk as if unable to control one's movements
                                                                                                                                              3. walk with great difficulty
                                                                                                                                              4. to arrange in a systematic order
                                                                                                                                              5. astound or overwhelm, as with shock

                                                                                                                                                72

                                                                                                                                                stimulus

                                                                                                                                                n. 刺激;激励;刺激物
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                                                                                                                                                1. any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action

                                                                                                                                                  73

                                                                                                                                                  stream

                                                                                                                                                  n. 溪流;流动;潮流;光线
                                                                                                                                                  vi. 流;涌进;飘扬
                                                                                                                                                  vt. 流出;涌出;使飘动
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                                                                                                                                                  1. a natural body of running water flowing on or under the earth
                                                                                                                                                  2. dominant course (suggestive of running water) of successive events or ideas
                                                                                                                                                  3. a steady flow (usually from natural causes)
                                                                                                                                                  4. the act of flowing or streaming; continuous progression
                                                                                                                                                  5. something that resembles a flowing stream in moving continuously

                                                                                                                                                    74

                                                                                                                                                    sufficient

                                                                                                                                                    adj. 足够的;充分的
                                                                                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                    1. of a quantity that can fulfill a need or requirement but without being abundant

                                                                                                                                                      75

                                                                                                                                                      unbridgeable

                                                                                                                                                      adj. 不能架桥的;不能逾越的
                                                                                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                      1. not bridgeable

                                                                                                                                                        76

                                                                                                                                                        volunteer

                                                                                                                                                        n. 志愿者;志愿兵
                                                                                                                                                        adj. 志愿的
                                                                                                                                                        vi. 自愿
                                                                                                                                                        vt. 自愿
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                                                                                                                                                        1. (military) a person who freely enlists for service
                                                                                                                                                        2. a person who performs voluntary work
                                                                                                                                                        3. a native or resident of Tennessee
                                                                                                                                                        4. tell voluntarily
                                                                                                                                                        5. agree freely

                                                                                                                                                          77

                                                                                                                                                          weathering

                                                                                                                                                          n. [地质] 风化作用;[水利] 泻水斜度;挡风雨材料
                                                                                                                                                          v. 风干;使退色;经受住(weather的ing形式)
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                                                                                                                                                          1. the meteorological conditions: temperature and wind and clouds and precipitation
                                                                                                                                                          2. face or endure with courage
                                                                                                                                                          3. cause to slope
                                                                                                                                                          4. sail to the windward of
                                                                                                                                                          5. change under the action or influence of the weather