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Flashcards in List-32 Deck (80):
1

accordion

adj. 可折叠的
n. 手风琴
-------------------------------------------

  1. a portable box-shaped free-reed instrument; the reeds are made to vibrate by air from the bellows controlled by the player

    2

    advocate

    vt. 提倡,主张,拥护
    n. 提倡者;支持者;律师
    -------------------------------------------

    1. a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea
    2. a lawyer who pleads cases in court
    3. push for something
    4. speak, plead, or argue in favour of

      3

      aria

      n. 咏叹调,独唱曲
      n. (Aria)人名;(德、西、意)阿里亚
      -------------------------------------------

      1. an elaborate song for solo voice

        4

        arouse

        vt. 引起;唤醒;鼓励
        vi. 激发;醒来;发奋
        -------------------------------------------

        1. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
        2. stop sleeping
        3. summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic
        4. cause to be alert and energetic
        5. cause to become awake or conscious

          5

          assert

          vt. 维护,坚持;断言;主张;声称
          -------------------------------------------

          1. state categorically
          2. to declare or affirm solemnly and formally as true
          3. insist on having one's opinions and rights recognized
          4. assert to be true

            6

            bagel

            n. 百吉饼(先蒸后烤的发面圈);(体育比赛中)零蛋
            -------------------------------------------

            1. (Yiddish) glazed yeast-raised doughnut-shaped roll with hard crust

              7

              barber

              vt. 为…理发;修整
              n. 理发师
              vi. 当理发师
              n. (Barber)人名;(西)巴尔韦尔;(英)巴伯;(罗)巴尔伯
              -------------------------------------------

              1. United States composer (1910-1981)
              2. a hairdresser who cuts hair and shaves beards as a trade
              3. perform the services of a barber: cut the hair and/or beard of

                8

                circumference

                n. 圆周;周长;胸围
                -------------------------------------------

                1. the size of something as given by the distance around it
                2. the boundary line encompassing an area or object
                3. the length of the closed curve of a circle

                  9

                  civil

                  adj. 公民的;民间的;文职的;有礼貌的;根据民法的
                  n. (Civil)人名;(土)吉维尔;(法)西维尔
                  -------------------------------------------

                  1. applying to ordinary citizens
                  2. not rude; marked by satisfactory (or especially minimal) adherence to social usages and sufficient but not noteworthy consideration for others
                  3. of or occurring within the state or between or among citizens of the state
                  4. of or relating to or befitting citizens as individuals
                  5. (of divisions of time) legally recognized in ordinary affairs of life

                    10

                    clinical

                    adj. 临床的;诊所的
                    -------------------------------------------

                    1. relating to a clinic or conducted in or as if in a clinic and depending on direct observation of patients
                    2. scientifically detached; unemotional

                      11

                      coalition

                      n. 联合;结合,合并
                      -------------------------------------------

                      1. an organization of people (or countries) involved in a pact or treaty
                      2. the state of being combined into one body
                      3. the union of diverse things into one body or form or group; the growing together of parts

                        12

                        competing

                        adj. 相互矛盾的;抵触的
                        v. 竞赛(compete的ing形式)
                        -------------------------------------------

                        1. being in competition

                          13

                          confine

                          n. 界限,边界;约束;限制
                          vt. 限制;禁闭
                          -------------------------------------------

                          1. restrict or confine,
                          2. place limits on (extent or access)
                          3. prevent from leaving or from being removed
                          4. close in or confine
                          5. deprive of freedom; take into confinement

                            14

                            confused

                            adj. 困惑的;混乱的;糊涂的
                            v. 困惑(confuse的过去式)
                            -------------------------------------------

                            1. perplexed by many conflicting situations or statements; filled with bewilderment
                            2. lacking orderly continuity
                            3. having lost your bearings; confused as to time or place or personal identity
                            4. thrown into a state of disarray or confusion
                            5. mentally confused; unable to think with clarity or act intelligently

                              15

                              consider

                              vt. 考虑;认为;考虑到;细想
                              vi. 考虑;认为;细想
                              -------------------------------------------

                              1. deem to be
                              2. give careful consideration to
                              3. take into consideration for exemplifying purposes
                              4. show consideration for; take into account
                              5. think about carefully; weigh

                                16

                                contamination

                                n. 污染,玷污;污染物
                                -------------------------------------------

                                1. the state of being contaminated
                                2. a substance that contaminates
                                3. the act of contaminating or polluting; including (either intentionally or accidentally) unwanted substances or factors

                                  17

                                  contemporary

                                  n. 同时代的人;同时期的东西
                                  adj. 当代的;同时代的;属于同一时期的
                                  -------------------------------------------

                                  1. a person of nearly the same age as another
                                  2. characteristic of the present
                                  3. belonging to the present time
                                  4. occurring in the same period of time

                                    18

                                    contest

                                    vt. 争辩;提出质疑
                                    vi. 竞争;争辩
                                    n. 竞赛;争夺;争论
                                    -------------------------------------------

                                    1. an occasion on which a winner is selected from among two or more contestants
                                    2. a struggle between rivals
                                    3. to make the subject of dispute, contention, or litigation

                                      19

                                      deceptive

                                      adj. 欺诈的;迷惑的;虚伪的
                                      -------------------------------------------

                                      1. causing one to believe what is not true or fail to believe what is true
                                      2. designed to deceive or mislead either deliberately or inadvertently

                                        20

                                        disguise

                                        vt. 掩饰;假装;隐瞒
                                        n. 伪装;假装;用作伪装的东西
                                        -------------------------------------------

                                        1. an outward semblance that misrepresents the true nature of something
                                        2. any attire that modifies the appearance in order to conceal the wearer's identity
                                        3. the act of concealing the identity of something by modifying its appearance
                                        4. make unrecognizable

                                          21

                                          drainage

                                          n. 排水;排水系统;污水;排水面积
                                          -------------------------------------------

                                          1. emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it

                                            22

                                            dull

                                            adj. 钝的;迟钝的;无趣的;呆滞的;阴暗的
                                            vt. 使迟钝;使阴暗;缓和
                                            vi. 减少;变迟钝
                                            n. (Dull)人名;(罗、匈)杜尔;(柬)杜;(英)达尔
                                            -------------------------------------------

                                            1. make dull in appearance
                                            2. become dull or lusterless in appearance; lose shine or brightness
                                            3. deaden (a sound or noise), especially by wrapping
                                            4. make numb or insensitive
                                            5. make dull or blunt

                                              23

                                              envision

                                              vt. 想象;预想
                                              -------------------------------------------

                                              1. imagine; conceive of; see in one's mind
                                              2. picture to oneself; imagine possible

                                                24

                                                factor

                                                n. 因素;要素;[物] 因数;代理人
                                                vi. 做代理商
                                                vt. 把…作为因素计入;代理经营;把…分解成
                                                n. (Factor)人名;(英)法克特
                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                1. anything that contributes causally to a result
                                                2. an abstract part of something
                                                3. any of the numbers (or symbols) that form a product when multiplied together
                                                4. one of two or more integers that can be exactly divided into another integer
                                                5. a businessman who buys or sells for another in exchange for a commission

                                                  25

                                                  factual

                                                  adj. 事实的;真实的
                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                  1. existing in act or fact
                                                  2. of or relating to or characterized by facts
                                                  3. existing in fact whether with lawful authority or not
                                                  4. characterized by fact

                                                    26

                                                    familiarize

                                                    vt. 使熟悉
                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                    1. make familiar or acquainted

                                                      27

                                                      fatigue

                                                      n. 疲劳,疲乏;杂役
                                                      vt. 使疲劳;使心智衰弱
                                                      vi. 疲劳
                                                      adj. 疲劳的
                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                      1. temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical or mental work
                                                      2. used of materials (especially metals) in a weakened state caused by long stress
                                                      3. (always used with a modifier) boredom resulting from overexposure to something
                                                      4. labor of a nonmilitary kind done by soldiers (cleaning or digging or draining or so on)
                                                      5. get tired of something or somebody

                                                        28

                                                        flavoring

                                                        n. 调味品(等于flavour)
                                                        v. 加味于…(flavor的ing形式)
                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                        1. something added to food primarily for the savor it imparts

                                                          29

                                                          homestead

                                                          n. 宅地;家园;田产
                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                          1. the home and adjacent grounds occupied by a family
                                                          2. land acquired from the United States public lands by filing a record and living on and cultivating it under the homestead law
                                                          3. dwelling that is usually a farmhouse and adjoining land
                                                          4. settle land given by the government and occupy it as a homestead

                                                            30

                                                            hospitable

                                                            adj. 热情友好的;(环境)舒适的
                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                            1. favorable to life and growth
                                                            2. disposed to treat guests and strangers with cordiality and generosity
                                                            3. having an open mind

                                                              31

                                                              imperative

                                                              adj. 必要的,不可避免的;紧急的;命令的,专横的;势在必行的;[语]祈使的
                                                              n. 必要的事;命令;需要;规则;[语]祈使语气
                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                              1. a mood that expresses an intention to influence the listener's behavior
                                                              2. some duty that is essential and urgent
                                                              3. requiring attention or action
                                                              4. relating to verbs in the imperative mood

                                                                32

                                                                independent

                                                                adj. 独立的;单独的;无党派的;不受约束的
                                                                n. 独立自主者;无党派者
                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                1. a neutral or uncommitted person (especially in politics)
                                                                2. a writer or artist who sells services to different employers without a long-term contract with any of them
                                                                3. free from external control and constraint
                                                                4. not dependent on or conditioned by or relative to anything else
                                                                5. (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces

                                                                  33

                                                                  initiate

                                                                  vt. 开始,创始;发起;使初步了解
                                                                  n. 开始;新加入者,接受初步知识者
                                                                  adj. 新加入的;接受初步知识的
                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                  1. someone new to a field or activity
                                                                  2. someone who has been admitted to membership in a scholarly field
                                                                  3. people who have been introduced to the mysteries of some field or activity
                                                                  4. bring into being
                                                                  5. take the lead or initiative in; participate in the development of

                                                                    34

                                                                    intelligent

                                                                    adj. 智能的;聪明的;理解力强的
                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                    1. having the capacity for thought and reason especially to a high degree
                                                                    2. possessing sound knowledge
                                                                    3. exercising or showing good judgment
                                                                    4. endowed with the capacity to reason

                                                                      35

                                                                      ironically

                                                                      adv. 讽刺地;说反话地
                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                      1. contrary to plan or expectation
                                                                      2. in an ironic manner

                                                                        36

                                                                        jar

                                                                        n. 罐;广口瓶;震动;刺耳声
                                                                        vi. 冲突;不一致;震惊;发刺耳声
                                                                        vt. 震动;刺激;使震动
                                                                        n. (Jar)人名;(罗)扎尔
                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                        1. a vessel (usually cylindrical) with a wide mouth and without handles
                                                                        2. the quantity contained in a jar
                                                                        3. a sudden impact
                                                                        4. be incompatible; be or come into conflict
                                                                        5. move or cause to move with a sudden jerky motion

                                                                          37

                                                                          labyrinth

                                                                          n. 迷宫;[解剖] 迷路;难解的事物
                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                          1. complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost
                                                                          2. a complex system of interconnecting cavities; concerned with hearing and equilibrium

                                                                            38

                                                                            line

                                                                            n. 路线,航线;排;绳
                                                                            vt. 排成一行;划线于;以线条标示;使…起皱纹
                                                                            vi. 排队;站成一排
                                                                            n. (Line)人名;(英)莱恩;(俄)利涅
                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                            1. a formation of people or things one beside another
                                                                            2. a mark that is long relative to its width
                                                                            3. a formation of people or things one behind another
                                                                            4. a length (straight or curved) without breadth or thickness; the trace of a moving point
                                                                            5. text consisting of a row of words written across a page or computer screen

                                                                              39

                                                                              margin

                                                                              n. 边缘;利润,余裕;页边的空白
                                                                              vt. 加边于;加旁注于
                                                                              n. (Margin)人名;(俄、意)马尔金
                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                              1. the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary
                                                                              2. an amount beyond the minimum necessary
                                                                              3. the amount of collateral a customer deposits with a broker when borrowing from the broker to buy securities
                                                                              4. (finance) the net sales minus the cost of goods and services sold
                                                                              5. the blank space that surrounds the text on a page

                                                                                40

                                                                                marsh

                                                                                n. 沼泽;湿地
                                                                                adj. 沼泽的;生长在沼泽地的
                                                                                n. (Marsh)人名;(俄)马尔什;(英、瑞典)马什
                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                1. low-lying wet land with grassy vegetation; usually is a transition zone between land and water
                                                                                2. United States painter (1898-1954)
                                                                                3. New Zealand writer of detective stories (1899-1982)

                                                                                  41

                                                                                  medication

                                                                                  n. 药物;药物治疗;药物处理
                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                  1. (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
                                                                                  2. the act of treating with medicines or remedies

                                                                                    42

                                                                                    mild

                                                                                    adj. 温和的;轻微的;淡味的;文雅的;不含有害物质的的
                                                                                    n. (英国的一种)淡味麦芽啤酒
                                                                                    n. (Mild)人名;(瑞典)米尔德;(德、捷、芬)米尔德
                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                    1. moderate in type or degree or effect or force; far from extreme
                                                                                    2. humble in spirit or manner; suggesting retiring mildness or even cowed submissiveness
                                                                                    3. mild and pleasant

                                                                                      43

                                                                                      miracle

                                                                                      n. 奇迹,奇迹般的人或物;惊人的事例
                                                                                      n. (Miracle)人名;(英)米勒克尔;(意、西)米拉克莱
                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                      1. any amazing or wonderful occurrence
                                                                                      2. a marvellous event manifesting a supernatural act of God

                                                                                        44

                                                                                        motif

                                                                                        n. 主题;动机;主旨;图形;意念
                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                        1. a design that consists of recurring shapes or colors
                                                                                        2. a theme that is elaborated on in a piece of music
                                                                                        3. a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in a literary or artistic work

                                                                                          45

                                                                                          multitude

                                                                                          n. 群众;多数
                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                          1. a large indefinite number
                                                                                          2. a large gathering of people
                                                                                          3. the common people generally

                                                                                            46

                                                                                            mundane

                                                                                            adj. 世俗的,平凡的;世界的,宇宙的
                                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                                            1. found in the ordinary course of events
                                                                                            2. concerned with the world or worldly matters
                                                                                            3. belonging to this earth or world; not ideal or heavenly

                                                                                              47

                                                                                              myriad

                                                                                              adj. 无数的;种种的
                                                                                              n. 无数,极大数量;无数的人或物
                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                              1. a large indefinite number
                                                                                              2. the cardinal number that is the product of ten and one thousand
                                                                                              3. too numerous to be counted

                                                                                                48

                                                                                                nectar

                                                                                                n. [植] 花蜜;甘露;神酒;任何美味的饮料
                                                                                                n. (Nectar)人名;(罗)内克塔尔
                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                1. a sweet liquid secretion that is attractive to pollinators
                                                                                                2. fruit juice especially when undiluted
                                                                                                3. (classical mythology) the food and drink of the gods; mortals who ate it became immortal

                                                                                                  49

                                                                                                  oasis

                                                                                                  n. 绿洲;舒适的地方;令人宽慰的事物
                                                                                                  n. (Oasis)人名;(英)奥西斯
                                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                  1. a fertile tract in a desert (where the water table approaches the surface)
                                                                                                  2. a shelter serving as a place of safety or sanctuary

                                                                                                    50

                                                                                                    olfactory

                                                                                                    adj. 嗅觉的;味道的
                                                                                                    n. 嗅觉器官
                                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                    1. of or relating to olfaction

                                                                                                      51

                                                                                                      optimal

                                                                                                      adj. 最佳的;最理想的
                                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                      1. most desirable possible under a restriction expressed or implied

                                                                                                        52

                                                                                                        partial

                                                                                                        adj. 局部的;偏爱的;不公平的
                                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                        1. the derivative of a function of two or more variables with respect to a single variable while the other variables are considered to be constant
                                                                                                        2. a harmonic with a frequency that is a multiple of the fundamental frequency
                                                                                                        3. being or affecting only a part; not total
                                                                                                        4. showing favoritism
                                                                                                        5. (followed by `of' or `to') having a strong preference or liking for

                                                                                                          53

                                                                                                          pesticide

                                                                                                          n. 杀虫剂
                                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                          1. a chemical used to kill pests (as rodents or insects)

                                                                                                            54

                                                                                                            plight

                                                                                                            n. 困境;境况;誓约
                                                                                                            vt. 保证;约定
                                                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                            1. a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one
                                                                                                            2. a solemn pledge of fidelity
                                                                                                            3. give to in marriage
                                                                                                            4. promise solemnly and formally

                                                                                                              55

                                                                                                              potassium

                                                                                                              n. [化学] 钾
                                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                              1. a light soft silver-white metallic element of the alkali metal group; oxidizes rapidly in air and reacts violently with water; is abundant in nature in combined forms occurring in sea water and in carnallite and kainite and sylvite

                                                                                                                56

                                                                                                                potential

                                                                                                                n. 潜能;可能性;[电] 电势
                                                                                                                adj. 潜在的;可能的;势的
                                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                1. the inherent capacity for coming into being
                                                                                                                2. the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts
                                                                                                                3. existing in possibility
                                                                                                                4. expected to become or be; in prospect

                                                                                                                  57

                                                                                                                  practical

                                                                                                                  adj. 实际的;实用性的
                                                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                  1. concerned with actual use or practice
                                                                                                                  2. guided by practical experience and observation rather than theory
                                                                                                                  3. being actually such in almost every respect
                                                                                                                  4. having or put to a practical purpose or use

                                                                                                                    58

                                                                                                                    refined

                                                                                                                    adj. [油气][化工][冶] 精炼的;精确的;微妙的;有教养的
                                                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                    1. (used of persons and their behavior) cultivated and genteel
                                                                                                                    2. freed from impurities by processing
                                                                                                                    3. showing a high degree of refinement and the assurance that comes from wide social experience
                                                                                                                    4. made pure
                                                                                                                    5. suggesting taste, ease, and wealth

                                                                                                                      59

                                                                                                                      reflect

                                                                                                                      vt. 反映;反射,照出;表达;显示;反省
                                                                                                                      vi. 反射,映现;深思
                                                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                      1. manifest or bring back
                                                                                                                      2. to throw or bend back or reflect (from a surface)
                                                                                                                      3. reflect deeply on a subject
                                                                                                                      4. be bright by reflecting or casting light
                                                                                                                      5. give evidence of a certain behavior

                                                                                                                        60

                                                                                                                        revitalize

                                                                                                                        vt. 使…复活;使…复兴;使…恢复生气
                                                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                        1. restore strength
                                                                                                                        2. give new life or vigor to

                                                                                                                          61

                                                                                                                          roe

                                                                                                                          n. 鱼卵,鱼子;牝鹿,獐
                                                                                                                          n. (Roe)人名;(英、意)罗
                                                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                          1. fish eggs or egg-filled ovary; having a grainy texture
                                                                                                                          2. eggs of female fish
                                                                                                                          3. the egg mass or spawn of certain crustaceans such as the lobster
                                                                                                                          4. the eggs or egg-laden ovary of a fish

                                                                                                                            62

                                                                                                                            sake

                                                                                                                            n. 目的;利益;理由;日本米酒
                                                                                                                            n. (Sake)人名;(罗)萨克;(日)酒(姓)
                                                                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                            1. a reason for wanting something done
                                                                                                                            2. Japanese alcoholic beverage made from fermented rice; usually served hot
                                                                                                                            3. the purpose of achieving or obtaining

                                                                                                                              63

                                                                                                                              sample

                                                                                                                              vt. 取样;尝试;抽样检查
                                                                                                                              n. 样品;样本;例子
                                                                                                                              adj. 试样的,样品的;作为例子的
                                                                                                                              n. (Sample)人名;(英)桑普尔
                                                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                              1. a small part of something intended as representative of the whole
                                                                                                                              2. items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population
                                                                                                                              3. all or part of a natural object that is collected and preserved as an example of its class
                                                                                                                              4. take a sample of

                                                                                                                                64

                                                                                                                                sequoia

                                                                                                                                n. 红杉(产于美国加州)
                                                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                1. either of two huge coniferous California trees that reach a height of 300 feet; sometimes placed in the Taxodiaceae

                                                                                                                                  65

                                                                                                                                  shallow

                                                                                                                                  adj. 浅的;肤浅的
                                                                                                                                  n. [地理] 浅滩
                                                                                                                                  vt. 使变浅
                                                                                                                                  vi. 变浅
                                                                                                                                  n. (Shallow)人名;(英)沙洛
                                                                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                  1. a stretch of shallow water
                                                                                                                                  2. make shallow
                                                                                                                                  3. become shallow
                                                                                                                                  4. lacking physical depth; having little spatial extension downward or inward from an outer surface or backward or outward from a center
                                                                                                                                  5. not deep or strong; not affecting one deeply

                                                                                                                                    66

                                                                                                                                    statistics

                                                                                                                                    n. 统计;统计学;[统计] 统计资料
                                                                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                    1. a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters

                                                                                                                                      67

                                                                                                                                      statue

                                                                                                                                      n. 雕像,塑像
                                                                                                                                      vt. 以雕像装饰
                                                                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                      1. a sculpture representing a human or animal

                                                                                                                                        68

                                                                                                                                        steer

                                                                                                                                        vt. 控制,引导;驾驶
                                                                                                                                        vi. 驾驶,掌舵;行驶
                                                                                                                                        n. 阉牛
                                                                                                                                        n. (Steer)人名;(英)斯蒂尔;(德、匈)施特尔
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                                                                                                                                        1. an indication of potential opportunity
                                                                                                                                        2. castrated bull
                                                                                                                                        3. direct the course; determine the direction of travelling
                                                                                                                                        4. direct (oneself) somewhere
                                                                                                                                        5. be a guiding force, as with directions or advice

                                                                                                                                          69

                                                                                                                                          stock

                                                                                                                                          n. 股份,股票;库存;血统;树干
                                                                                                                                          adj. 存货的,常备的;平凡的
                                                                                                                                          vt. 进货;备有;装把手于…
                                                                                                                                          vi. 囤积;办货;出新芽
                                                                                                                                          n. (Stock)人名;(德、匈、捷)施托克;(英、法、葡、瑞典)斯托克
                                                                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                          1. the capital raised by a corporation through the issue of shares entitling holders to an ownership interest (equity)
                                                                                                                                          2. liquid in which meat and vegetables are simmered; used as a basis for e.g. soups or sauces
                                                                                                                                          3. the merchandise that a shop has on hand
                                                                                                                                          4. a supply of something available for future use
                                                                                                                                          5. not used technically; any animals kept for use or profit

                                                                                                                                            70

                                                                                                                                            submerge

                                                                                                                                            vt. 淹没;把…浸入;沉浸
                                                                                                                                            vi. 淹没;潜入水中;湮没
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                                                                                                                                            1. sink below the surface; go under or as if under water
                                                                                                                                            2. cover completely or make imperceptible
                                                                                                                                            3. put under water
                                                                                                                                            4. fill or cover completely, usually with water

                                                                                                                                              71

                                                                                                                                              subsidy

                                                                                                                                              n. 补贴;津贴;补助金
                                                                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                              1. a grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public

                                                                                                                                                72

                                                                                                                                                subsistence

                                                                                                                                                n. 生活;生存;存在
                                                                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                1. minimal (or marginal) resources for subsisting
                                                                                                                                                2. a means of surviving
                                                                                                                                                3. the state of existing in reality; having substance

                                                                                                                                                  73

                                                                                                                                                  summit

                                                                                                                                                  n. 顶点;最高级会议;最高阶层
                                                                                                                                                  adj. 最高级的;政府首脑的
                                                                                                                                                  -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                  1. the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development
                                                                                                                                                  2. the top point of a mountain or hill
                                                                                                                                                  3. a meeting of heads of governments
                                                                                                                                                  4. reach the summit of a mountain

                                                                                                                                                    74

                                                                                                                                                    tarnish

                                                                                                                                                    n. 晦暗,无光泽;污点
                                                                                                                                                    vt. 玷污;使……失去光泽;使……变灰暗
                                                                                                                                                    vi. 失去光泽;被玷污;变灰暗
                                                                                                                                                    -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                    1. discoloration of metal surface caused by oxidation
                                                                                                                                                    2. make dirty or spotty, as by exposure to air; also used metaphorically

                                                                                                                                                      75

                                                                                                                                                      technique

                                                                                                                                                      n. 技巧,技术;手法
                                                                                                                                                      -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                      1. a practical method or art applied to some particular task
                                                                                                                                                      2. skillfulness in the command of fundamentals deriving from practice and familiarity

                                                                                                                                                        76

                                                                                                                                                        telegraph

                                                                                                                                                        n. [通信] 电报机,电报
                                                                                                                                                        vt. 电汇;流露出;打电报给…
                                                                                                                                                        vi. 打电报
                                                                                                                                                        -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                        1. apparatus used to communicate at a distance over a wire (usually in Morse code)
                                                                                                                                                        2. send cables, wires, or telegrams

                                                                                                                                                          77

                                                                                                                                                          temper

                                                                                                                                                          n. 脾气;(钢等)回火;性情;倾向
                                                                                                                                                          vt. 使回火;锻炼;调和;使缓和
                                                                                                                                                          vi. 回火;调和
                                                                                                                                                          -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                          1. a sudden outburst of anger
                                                                                                                                                          2. a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling
                                                                                                                                                          3. a disposition to exhibit uncontrolled anger
                                                                                                                                                          4. the elasticity and hardness of a metal object; its ability to absorb considerable energy before cracking
                                                                                                                                                          5. toughen (steel or glass) by a process of gradually heating and cooling

                                                                                                                                                            78

                                                                                                                                                            tempt

                                                                                                                                                            vt. 诱惑;引起;冒…的风险;使感兴趣
                                                                                                                                                            -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                            1. dispose or incline or entice to
                                                                                                                                                            2. provoke someone to do something through (often false or exaggerated) promises or persuasion
                                                                                                                                                            3. give rise to a desire by being attractive or inviting
                                                                                                                                                            4. induce into action by using one's charm
                                                                                                                                                            5. try to seduce

                                                                                                                                                              79

                                                                                                                                                              terminology

                                                                                                                                                              n. 术语,术语学;用辞
                                                                                                                                                              -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                              1. a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline

                                                                                                                                                                80

                                                                                                                                                                violently

                                                                                                                                                                adv. 猛烈地,激烈地;极端地
                                                                                                                                                                -------------------------------------------

                                                                                                                                                                1. in a violent manner