14thc. in Europe Vocab Flashcards Preview

AP Art History > 14thc. in Europe Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in 14thc. in Europe Vocab Deck (70):
1

Flanders

one of the regions and communities of Belgium and also a historical geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands.

2

Guild

an association of craftspeople.

3

Gesso

a ground made from glue, gypsum, and/or chalk forming the ground of a wood panel or the priming layer of a canvas. Provides a smooth surface for painting.

4

Canvas

a heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used as a substrate for paintings.

5

Triptych

an artwork made up of three panels hinged together.

6

Idealization

a process in art through which artists strive to make their forms and figures attain perfection, based on pervading cultural values and/or their own mental image of beauty.

7

Brugess

the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium.

8

Guild of St. Luke

group of painters who had St. Luke as their patron saint

9

Burgundy

former duchy of eastern central France

10

Majolica

a kind of earthenware made in imitation of Italian maiolica

11

Tempera

powdered pigments mixed with egg yolk, water, & glue

12

Atmospheric perspective

method of rendering the effect of spatial distance by subtle

13

Gilded

when paper-thin gold leaf or gold pigment is applied to an object

14

Diptych

two decorated panels of equal size hinged together

15

Patron

a person who endorses an artist

16

Glazing

outermost layer of vitreous liquid that makes ceramics waterproof and forms decorative surface when fired. In painting, a technique used with oil mediums where transparent layer of paint is laid over another, usually lighter, painted or glazed area.

17

Polyptych

altarpiece constructed from multiple panels, sometimes with hinges

18

Tapestry

multicolored pictorial or decorative weaving meant to be hung on a wall or placed on furniture.

19

Courtiers

a person who is often in attendance at the court of a king or other royal personage.

20

Joan of Arc

a folk heroine of France and a Roman Catholic saint. She was born a peasant girl in what is now eastern France. Claiming divine guidance, she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War, which paved the way for the coronation of Charles VII of France.

21

Pilasters

an engaged columnar element that is rectangular in format and used for decoration in architecture.

22

Allegory

a device in which characters or events represent or symbolize ideas and concepts.

23

Plague

contagious illness that often results in death

24

Houppelande

outer garment with a long, full body and flaring sleeves, that was worn by both men and women

25

Virtuoso

a person who has special knowledge in a skill or field

26

Blasphemous

containing an irreligious concerning God or sacred things.

27

International Gothic Style

a phase of Gothic art of courtly sophisitcation.

28

Florence

the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence.

29

Pisa

a city in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the River Arno on the Tyrrhenian Sea.

30

Venice

a city in northeast Italy sited on a group of 118 small islands separated by canals and linked by bridges.

31

Milan

the second-largest city in Italy and the capital of Lombardy.

32

Urbino

a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro.

33

Padua

a city and comune in the Veneto, northern Italy. It is the capital of the province of Padua and the economic and communications hub of the area.

34

Carnal

relating to the needs of the physical body.

35

Classical antiquity

a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and Middle East.

36

Centering

a temporary structure that supports a masonry arch and vault or dome during construction until the mortar is fully dried and the masonry is self-sustaining.

37

Impost block

a block, serving to concentrate the weight above, imposed between the capital of a column and the springing of an arch above.

38

Bay

a unit of space defined by architectural elements such as columns, piers, and walls.

39

High relief

relief sculpture in which the image projects strongly from the background.

40

Middleground

in artistic perspective, the middle distance from the foreground.

41

One point perspective

method of creating the illusion of 3D space on a 2D surface by delineating a horizon line and multiple orthogonal lines

42

Fresco

wall painting

43

Trompe l’oeil

appearance of natural space & objects is re-created with the intention of fooling the eye of the viewer, who may think that the subject is really 3D

44

Neoplatonism

a philosophical and religious system developed by the followers of Plotinus

45

Secular

attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis

46

Treatise

a written work dealing formally and systematically with a subject

47

Low relief

relief sculpture that has low projection from the background

48

Background

area or scenery behind the subject

49

Coffers

recessed decorative panel used to reduce the weight of & decorate ceilings or vaults

50

Sarcristy

a room in a church where a priest prepares for a service, and where vestments and other things used in worship are kept

51

Lunettes

semi-circular wall area, framed by an arch over a door or window

52

Architraves

the bottom element in an entablature

53

Foreground

portion of scene closest to the viewer

54

Vanishing point

the point on the horizon line where running lines meet.

55

Aedicule

decorative architectural frame, usually found around a niche, door, or window. Made up of a pediment and entablature supported by columns or pilasters..

56

Sinopia

the preparatory design or underdrawing of a fresco.

57

Veneer

the exterior facing of a building, often in decorative patterns of fine stone or brick. In decorative arts, a thin exterior layer of finer material laid over the form.

58

Seraphim

an angel of the highest rank in the Christian hierarchy.

59

Foreshortening

the illusion created on a flat surface in which figures and objects appear to recede or project sharply into space.

60

Balustrade

a railing with supported balusters.

61

Stigmata

a mark of disgrace or infamy

62

Intarsia

decoration formed through wood inlay

63

Engraving

an intaglio printmaking process of inscribing an image onto metal or wood surface from which a print is made.

64

Watercolor

a painting method in which the medium or the resulting artwork in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-soluble vehicle.

65

Movable-type printing

the system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters which are either made out off wood,steel or pee or punctuation).

66

Intaglio

a design incised or engraved into a material

67

Burins

steel tool used for engraving in copper or wood

68

Edition

particular form or version of a published text

69

Block books

short books made with woodcuts carved to include both texts and illustrations.

70

Woodcuts

a type of print made by carving a design into a wooden block. The ink is applied to the block with a roller. As the ink remains only on the raised areas between the carved away lines, these areas and lines provide the white areas of the print.