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Flashcards in 16thc. Italy Questions Deck (45)
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1

Describe Stanza Della Segnatura

Raphael. 1510-11. Vatican, Rome.
-Room of the Signature
-intended to be Pope Julius II's library and study.
-based mural on traditional organization of library into theology, philosophy, the arts, and justice. created allegories to illustrate these themes.
-one wall, churchmen discussing sacraments represent theology.
-ancient philosophers debate in the School of Athens, led by Plato and Aristotle
-on window wall, Justice, holding sword and scales, assigns each his due.
-arts represented by Apollo and the Muses.

2

Describe The Last Supper

Leonardo da Vinci. 1495-98. Tempera and oil on plaster. Wall painting in refectory of Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie
-Jesus and disciples seated at long table.
-stagelike space recedes to three windows at back
-vanishing point lies behind Jesus's head
-Jesus forms an equilateral triangle.
-scene captures moment of Jesus saying who will betray him.
-Judas recoils, clutching his money bag in shadows to left of Jesus.
-vivid and expressive human emotions
-symbolic of Jesus's coming sacrifice for salvation and institution of ritual of mass.
-Judas placed with John and Peter. Judas sets in motion events leading to Jesus's death. Peter leads Church after Jesus's death. John foretells Second Coming and Last Judgment in Apocalypse.
-four groups of three = numeric symbolism
-sense of gravity, balance, and order

3

Describe Virgin and Saint Anne with the Christ Child and the Young John the Baptist

Leonardo. 1500. Charcoal heightened with white on brown paper.
-may be model for painting
-Mary sits on knee of mother, Anne, and turns right to hold Christ, who strains to reach towards John.
-created illusion of high relief by modeling figures with strongly contrasted light and shadow (chiaroscuro)
-carefully placed highlights create interlocking circular movements. underscore individual importance of each figure while making each an integral part of the whole

4

Describe Mona Lisa

Leonardo. 1503. Oil on wood panel.
-subject may have been Lisa Gherardini del Giocondo, wife of prominent merchant
-remarkably, she has no jewelry
-solid pyramidal form of half-length figure is silhouetted against distant mountains, reinforces mysterious atmosphere
-gentle smile not accompanied by warmth in eyes
-fashion of plucked eyebrows and shaved hairline to increase height of forehead adds to her arresting appearance
-unsettling is bold and slightly flirtatious way her gaze has shifted towards right to look straight out at viewer

5

Describe Vitruvian Man

Leonardo. 1490. Ink.
-diagram for ideal male figure
-based on Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius's stuff.

6

Describe The Small Cowper Madonna

Raphael. 1505. Oil on wood panel.
-named for a modern owner
-delicate tilt of heads and tranquil mood
-pyramid with child's twisting shape
-solidly modeled forms are softened by clear, even light of outdoor setting
-Domed Church of San Bernardino painted in background.

7

Describe School of Athens

Raphael. Fresco in Stanza della Segnatura.
-summarizes ideals of Renaissance papcy in harmoniously arranged forms in rational space and calm dignity of figures
-viewed through trompe l'oiel arch, Plato and Aristotle silhouetted against sky
-Plato gestures upward, indicating "ideal" as impossible to obtain on earth
-Aristotle, with outstretched hand, emphasizes importance of gathering knowledge from observing material world
-statues of apollo and minerva look down from niches
-around them are mathematicians, naturalists, astronomers, etc. debating and demonstrating their theories to each other.
-scene flooded with single light source takes place in immense barrel-vaulted interior

8

Describe Pope Leo X with Cardinals Guilio de' Medici and Luigi de' Rossi

Raphael. 1517. Oil on wood panel.
-facing the pope is cousin, Guilio.
-behind pope stands luigi.
-pope looks up from manuscript that he was examining with magnifying glass
-they dont look at each other
-uneasy mood; disconnected.
-clearly depicted contrasting textures and surfaces including visual distortion caused by magnifying glass on book page.
-polished brass knob on pope's chair reflects window and painter himself.

9

Describe Miraculous Draft of Fishes

Shop of Pieter van Aelst. 1515-16. Tapestry, wool and silk with silver-gilt wrapped threads.
-two boats make friezelike composition and huge straining figures remind of Raphael's competition with Michelangelo.
-Christ's face copied from 15thc. bronze copy.
-landscape behind includes crowd on shore, and city of Rome with walls and churches.
-three cranes in foreground = ever-alert and watchful pope.

10

Describe Pieta.

Michelangelo. 1500. Marble.
-commissioned by French cardinal and installed as tomb monument.
-very young Virgin of heroic stature holding smaller body of Christ.
-inconsistencies of age and size forgotten in sweetness of expression, finely finished surfaces, and softly modeled forms.

11

Describe David

Michelangelo. 1501-04. Marble.
-originally planned to be placed high atop buttress of Cathedral, but placed at eye-level in square instead.
-became reminder of Florence's republican status, briefly reinstated after Medici's expulsion.
-embodies athletic ideal of antiquity and emotional power of expression and concentrated gaze is new.
-frowns and stares into space. implies heroic qualities
-represents supremacy of right over might

12

Interior, Sistine Chapel

1475-81. Vatican, Rome.
-Michelangelo objected to pope's original plans
-illusionistic marble architecture establishes framework for figures on vault of chapel
-around ceiling is painted cornice supported by short pilasters with putti
-Seated on cornice are heroic figures of nude young men

13

Describe Creation of Adam, Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo. 1511-12. Fresco
-moment when God gives Adam life.
Adam's pose matches God's.
-below Adam is ignudo grasping oak leaves and giant acorns, refers to Pope Julius's name or to passage in OT.

14

Describe Moses

Michelangelo. 1513-16. Marble. Tomb of Julius II
-gigantic muscular figure, in great sheets of drapery, seated in restless contrapposto that strains against confines of niche.
-hand tugging at beard signifies tour de force

15

Describe New Sacristy (Medici Chapel)

Michelangelo. 1519-34. Church of San Lorenzo
-each of two monuments has idealized portrait of deceased
-men dressed in 16thc. classical armor above pseudoclassical sarcophagi.
-on top of sarcophagi are male and female figures representing times of day
-Giuliano represents Active Life, and his sarcophagus figures represent Night and Day.
-huge mask behind Night may allude to Death
-Lorenzo represents Contemplative Life, supported by Dawn and Evening.
-pierta serena pilasters and architraves

16

Describe The Great Grotto, Boboli Gardens

1583-93.
-recess constructed of irregular stones and shells covered with foliage and slime to suggest natural cave
-contained four marble captives by Michelangelo

17

Describe Tempietto, Church of San Pietro in Montorio

Donate Bramante.
-"Little Temple"
-combined principles of Vitruvius and Alberti
-Vitruvius advised that Doric order be used for temples to gods of forceful character
-centralized plan and tall drum

18

Describe Palazzo Farnese, Rome

Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and Michelangelo. 1517-50.
-main facade faces public square
-task of rebuilding into largest, finest palace in Rome
-massive central door emphasized by elaborate rusticated stonework
-piano nobile, first floor (2nd floor)

19

Describe Assumption of the Virgin

Correggio. 1526-30. Fresco.
-softly modeled forms, spotlighting effects of illumination, slight haze (sfumato)
-swirling vortex of clouds
-sensuous flesh and clinging draperies contrasts with spirituality of theme
-swirling, upward motion

20

Describe Joseph and Potiphar's Wife

Properzia de Rossi. 1525-26. Marble.
-famous for her miniature carvings.
-inspired by love of man.
-Joseph escapes, running

21

Describe The Tempest

Giorgione. 1506. Oil on canvas.
-imaginative and sensual aspects of the poesie.
-right, woman seated on ground, nude except for cloth. nudity seems maternal as she nurses child.
-across is man wearing uniform of German mercenary soldier.
-focus more on landscape. thunder in the sky. fountain gushing into stream. affluent town in the background.
-gave importance to nature.

22

Describe The Pastoral Concert or Allegory on the Invention of Pastoral Poetry

Titian. 1510. Oil on canvas.
-fertile landscape bathed in golden sunlight.
-two men, aristocratic musician in rich red silks and barefoot, singing peasant in homespun cloth turn toward each other, ignoring two women.
-one woman plays a pipe and other pours water into well.
-shepherd and animals nearby.
-evokes mood of golden age of love and innocence recalled in Roman pastoral poetry.

23

Describe Pesaro Madonna

Titian. 1519-26. Oil on canvas.
-asymmetrical setting of huge columns on high bases.
-Virgin ans Child on high throne and arranged saints and Pesaro family at sides.
-central figure of Saint Peter.
-red of Franceso Pesaro's garment and banner set contrast of primary colors against Peter's blue and yellow, and red and blue of Virgin
-Saint Maurice holds banner with coat of arms of the pope, and cowering Turkish captive reminds viewer of Christian victory.
-Light floods in from above.
-built on diagonal grid.

24

Describe Venus of Urbino

Titian. 1538. Oil on canvas.
-inspired by flesh-and-blood beauty
-gestures seem deliberately provocative.
-sheets and pillows set off glowing flesh and golden hair
-spaniel (fidelity) sleeps at her feet
-maid in background lends comfortable domestic air

25

Describe Pieta

Titian. 1570-76. Oil on canvas.
-sought essence of form and idea, not surface perfection
-Virgin mourns her son against huge arched niche
-Titian painted himself as Saint Jerome kneeling before Christ.
-figures emerge out of darkness
-diagonal composition

26

Describe Isabella D'Este

Titian. 1534-36. Oil on canvas.
-huge patron of the arts
-Renaissance woman

27

Describe Last Judgment, Sistine Chapel

Michelangelo. 1536-41. Fresco.
-above chapel altar
-writhing swarm of rising and falling humanity
-left, dead are dragged from graves and pushed up into vortex of figures around Christ, who wields arm like a sword of justice
-shrinking Virgin = change from Gothic tradition
-right of Christ's feet is Saint Bartholomew who was skinned alive, holds his flayed skin
-rejected souls plunged into Hell at right, leaving unjudged in uncomprehending state
-Charon, ferrymen of dead to underworld
-cloth added because nudity

28

Describe Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican

Michelangelo. 1546-64
-flat, angeled walls and three hemicycles (semicircular structures)
-colossal pilasters, blind windows, and niches form sanctuary

29

Describe Pieta (Rondanini Pieta)

Michelangelo. Marble. 1559-64.
-expression of lonely, disillusioned, and physically debilitated man
-unfinished since he died.
-struggle between artist and medium
-ignored Renaissance ideals of human perfectability and denied own youthful idealism
-uncovered new forms that mirrored tensions in Europe

30

Describe Facade of the Church of Il Gesu

Giacomo della Porta. Rome. 1573-84.
-congregational purpose
-wide, barrel-vaulted nave, shallow connected side chapels without aisles, and short transepts
-enabled all worshipers to gather in central space
-single huge apse and dome over crossing directed attention to altar
-facade emphasized central portal with classical pilasters, engaged columns and pediments, and volutes scrolling out to hide buttresses of central vault and to link tall central section with lower sides.
-possessed verticality and centrality.