Flashcards in Roman Questions Deck (90):
What does Roman architecture owe to the Greeks and how is it different?
The Romans adapted Greek architectural orders in their own way. The Roman orders include composite and tuscan which get a lot of its basic design from the Greek orders. The Romans differed from the greeks in that they devised architecturally advanced aqueducts that employ the use of the arch. The arch is also found in Roman vaults and domes as seen in the Porta Agusta and the Fortuna Primigenia. However, Roman temples are very similar to the of the Greeks in that they adopted the peristyle formation, the use of columns, entablatures, and pediments as well.
Why is Roman architecture of space rather than mass
Roman architecture is very open and spacious due to its prominent use columns, arches, and vaults. There is rarely one mass of closed building. Even in Roman villas, what may appear to look like an enclosed structure may actually have an open courtyard in the center. The Romans appreciated the outside world and nature and built their buildings so that the outside was visible and accessible.
Compare Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia and Athenian Acropolis and Egyptian Temple of Queen Hatshepsut
The Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia is set in rock and composed of hundreds of columns. Additionally, the structure contains five stories, unlike the Acropolis which only has one. The acropolis too is a peristyle building that resembles a basic rectangle. The Sanctuary contains a variety of sized elements. It is similar to the Temple of Hatshepsut in that it is set in rock and does not stand alone like the Acropolis.
Compare Roman sculptures in Republican Period and Greek sculpture
Like Greek sculpture, Republican sculpture is realistic, detailed, and of course covered with fine wet drapery. There is a great deal of emotion found in Republican sculpture, just as in the Hellenistic Greek period. The Romans, however, incorporated more nature in their backgrounds to balance out the forms, for example in the Allegory of Peace, which contains foliage and a deep meaning. The imperial portraiture was used as propaganda and depicts rulers in an ideal forms, as did the Gre
What concerns do Romans show for illusionism and play of light in their still lives?
In Roman still lifes, a strong and clear light source is used to cast defined shadows, pick up highlights, and enhance the illusion of real objects in real space. In the still life of the green fruit, a glass vase is depict. The artists seems to begin to grasp how to paint different surfaces, even those that are transparent.
Compare Ara Pacis Augustae with Altar of Zeuz at Pergamon
The Ara pacis contains unique Roman detailing such as garlands and other floral motifs. The Altar of Zeus utilizes more columns, which the Ara Pacis does not. This altar is more geometric in form yet intricate in detailing.
How does relief on Ara Pacis compare to relief on Parthenon?
The relief sculptures on the Ara Pacis contained a distinct technique that creates a three-dimensional image. Figures that are farther away are shown in very low relief to seem hazy, whereas the figures that are closer are in higher relief and have a defined form. The the figures on the reliefs on the Parthenon were generally of the same dimension.
What happened to the Roman Empire during the Late Empire? How does Roman art change in the Late Empire?
During the Late Empire, the Empire entered a period of political and economic decline. Barbarian groups began moving into the empire. Their sculptures became more chilling, intense, and ruthless-looking. This can be seen in Caracalla. The Battle Between the Romans and the Barbarians, a detail of the Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus, shows a different style. Earlier Roman reliefs were carefully crafted where figures moved in and through naturalistic surroundings, while this detail shows a number of squeezed figures with no naturalistic surrounding.
Why did Diocletian divide the Roman Empire? What is the Tetrarchy and how does the statue of the Four Tetrarchs represent this government? How does this representation of the Augusti differ from previous representations of the emperor and why?
Diocletian divided the Roman Empire to divide up the task of defending and administering the empire and to assure an orderly succession. The Tetrarchy is a “rule of four” where one with the title of “Augustus” would be appointed to each side and each Augustus would choose a subordinate with the title “Caesar”. The state of the Four Tetrarchs represents this with its four figures divided into pairs to signify the two sides. Each pair has a bearded figure (Augustus), leaving the other figure to be the Caesar. They are dressed in military clothes and clasp swords. They also embrace each other to shower imperial unity, proclaiming peace through strength and vigilance. It differs from previous representations of emperor with its simple, geometric form. There is no regard for normal human proportion.
What is the significance of Constantine to the Christian religion?
He ended the persecution of Christians and recognized Christianity as a lawful religion. He also issued the Edict of Milan, which became a model of religious toleration that granted freedom to all religious groups.
The Arch of Constantine uses recycled materials (old medallions, etc) as well as new material such as the frieze shown in the text. How does the new style differ? What is the message?
It has three huge arches that are also three barrel-vaulted passageways that are flanked by columns on high pedestals. The message inscribed on the large attic story reads “To the Emperor Constantine from the Senate and the Roman People. Since through divine inspiration and great wisdom he has delivered the state from the tyrant and his party by his army and noble arms, we dedicate this arch, decorated with triumphal insignia.” There were reused items on this arch which visually transferred the old Roman virtues of strength, courage, and piety. New reliefs made for the arch tell the story of Constantine’s victory and symbolize his power and generosity. The two dimensional, hierarchical approach and abstract art depicted in these new reliefs form a new abstract style.
How does the new style of Constantine foreshadow the art of the Middle Ages?
The new style of Constantine was adopted by churches with its emphasis on authority, ritual, and symbolic meaning. It acts as a bridge between the Classical world and the art of the Middle Ages.
What did the great sculpture of Constantine look like originally and where was it located? How does it compare to earlier representations of an emperor?
The statue was 30ft and located in his new basilica. The head combines traditional Roman portraiture features and abstract qualities like those in the Tetrarchs. It projects imperial power and dignity with no hint of human frailty or imperfection. Most representations of emperor were not as large, and did not seem as commanding.
What is the purpose and what are the basic characteristics of the Roman basilica?
It served as an administrative center and also as a setting for the emperor when he appeared as supreme judge. It is flanked by two apses on its side. The basilica consisted of a large central area flanked by colonnades surrounded by a clerestory.
Be prepared to discuss how Roman Emperors used art to manipulate public opinion. There are numerous examples of this to choose from.
A lot of Roman art was used to proclaim the power and authority of the ruler. It was also used as propaganda to advertise the strong and powerful ruler. An example of this is the Augustus of Primaporta. He is positioned in the orator pose that expresses authority and persuasiveness. The added mythology of the Cupid next to the emperor’s right leg signifies his descent from the goddess Venus. His bare feet suggest his divine state after death. All of these details of the sculpture portray the emperor’s power and authority.
Bronze, glass-paste eyes
Wolf nourished and saved city's founder, Romulus and Remus
Describe Porta Augusta
Perugia, Italy 3rd-2nd c. CE
-Etruscan monumental architecture.
-tunnel like passageway between 2 huge towers, square frame surmounted by entablature like thing.
-Roundels alternating with pilasters
Describe a typical Etruscan Temple
Built on podium starting from courtyard or open city square, single flight of steps leading to front porch.
-Columns and entablature support projecting portion of roof
-Square ground plan divided equally between porch and interior space.
-Mud brick walls. Wooden columns.
Temple of Minerva, 510-500 BCE, Maser sculptor Vulca (?), Painted terracotta
-Part of 4 scene from labor of Hercules.
-Apollo and Hercules fighting for Diana's deer. Striding forward.
-Defies logical relationship of sculpture to architecture as seen in Greek stuff.
-Willing to sacrifice structural logic for lively action
How does Apollo relate to the Greek kouroi?
The Archaic smile. But Apollo is partially clothes, and has vigorous forward moving pose.
-Realistically portrayed energy.
Describe Tomb of the Triclinium
-Stylized treesand birds
-Women are portrayed as active participants
Describe Burial Chamber in Tomb of the Reliefs
Cerveteri, 3rd c. BCE
-Walls were once plastered, painted, and fully furnished
-Made to look like room in house
Describe Sarcophagus from Cerveteri
-Husband and wife reclining together
-Upper bodies are vertical and square, but hips and legs seem to sink into couch
Describe (Etruscan) Mirror
400-350BCE, engraved bronze
-Winged man Calchas studying liver of sacrificed animal because they could reveal the future.
-Grapevines and jug suggest his death of laughing in his vineyard
-Complex pose, naturalistic suggestions of rocky setting, and pull and twist of drapery emphasize figure's 3-D to convey sense of realism.
Describe Head of a Man (Brutus)
mid-3rd c. BCE, bronze, painted ivory eyes
-Conveys psychological complexity with somewhat world weary man with strong character and great strength of purpose
-Could also be unknown dignitary or imaginary hero.
-Strong broad face with heavy brows, hawk nose, firmly set lips, wide-open eyes
When was the Republic from?
Desribe Aulus Metellus
-"The Orator" (orator pose)
-man addressing gathering, arm outstretched and slightly raised, pose expressive of authority and persuasiveness.
-wears laced leather boots and folded, draped garment (toga)
Describe Portrait of Pompey
30CE (original 50BCE), marble
-meticulous realism (verism) combines underlying bone structure with surface detail
Describe Denarius with Portrait of Julius Caesar
-Propoganda. Julius Carsar's face on coin
-Venus placed on reverse as reference to Julian family's claim that they were descended from Venus
Describe Pont du Gard
Late 1stc. BCE, Nimes, France
-carried water channel of aqueduct across river on bridge of arches
-each arch buttresses its neighbors and huge arcades ends solidly in hillsides
-conveys balance, proportions, and rhythmic harmony that fits naturally into landscape
Describe Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia
Late 2nd c. BCE, Palestrina, Italy
-built of concrete, covered with veneer of stucco and finely cut limestone, 7 vaulted platforms or terraces covered steep hillside
-long ramps and stairscape
-enclosed ramps open onto 4th terrace, which has central stair with flanking colonnades and symmetrically placed exedrae.
-on 6th level, arcades and colonnades form 3 sides of a large square.
-7th level, huge, theatrelike colonnade pavilion reached by semicircular staircase, and behind was small tholos hiding ancient cave of divination
What is opus reticulatum?
framework of diagonal web of smallish bricks set in cross pattern
Describe Temple that is perhaps dedicated to Portunus
Late 2ndc. BCE, Rome
-rectangular cella and porch at one end
-Ionic columns are freestanding and engaged
-entablature continues as decorative frieze
-encircling columns resemble peripteral temple, but because engaged, it is psuedoperipteral
Describe Maison Carree
20BCE, Nimes, France
-Like temple of Portunus but with Corinthian columns and is bigger
When was the Early Empire?
27BCE - 96CE
Describe Augustus of Primaporta
Early 1stc.CE, Marble (copy of bronze 20BCE)
-orator pose and ideal proportions
-illustrates use of imperial portraiture for propaganda
-mythological imagery of Cupid
Describe Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace)
-celebrates Augustus as warrior and peacemaker
-decorative allegory gives way to Roman realism (Imperial Procession)
Describe Allegory of Peace
Goddess Pax nurtures Roman people (2 chubby babies) accompanied by two young women with veils. Could also symbolize fertility of Roman farms. One is on flying swan (land wind) and other is on sea monster (sea wind)
Underlying theme of peaceful, abundant Earth is reinforced by flowers and foliage in background and domesticated animals in foreground
Sense of 3-D and volume by turning figures in space and wrapping them in revealing draperies.
Framed by Corinth pilasters supporting simple entablature. Key pattern (meander)
Describe Gemma Austuea
Early 1stc. CE, onyx
-glorifies Augustuc as triumphant over barbarians and as deified emperor
-emperor assumed identity of Jupiter with eagle
-sitting next to him is personification of Rome
-sea goat may represent Carpricorn, his zodiac side
-Tiberius steps out of chariot
-below, Roman soldiers are raising post on which armor captured from enemy is displayed
-cowering, shackled barbarians on bottom right wait to be tied to post
-combines idealized, heroic figures with recognizable Roman portraits, the dramatic action of Hellenistic art with Roman realism
Describe layout of Pompeii
-temples and governments surrounded a forum, shops and houses lined straight paved streets, and protective wall enclosed heart of city
Describe typical Roman house
-consisted of small rooms laid out around one or two open courts, atrium and peristyle
-rooms were arranged symmetrically
Describe House of the Vettii
Date for Fountain Mosaic
Mid-1st c. CE
Describe Intiation Rites of the Cult of Bacchus in the Villa of the Myseteries
-rites of mystery religion were performed here
-murals depict initiation rites
-settings consists of marble dado and elegant frieze supported by pilasters and stage of brilliant red
Describe Garden Scene
From dining room of Villa of Livia at Primaporta, late 1st c. BCE
-wall surfaces painted away to create illusion of being on porch.
-heavily laden fruit trees, flowering shrubs, variety of birds
Describe Seascape and Coastal Towns
From Villa Farnesina, late 1stc. CE
-depicts lovely place praised by Roman poets, where people lived effortlessly in union with land.
-atmospheric perspective: distant objects rendered smaller than near objects, and colors become slightly greyer near horizon
Describe Reconstructed Bedroom
House of Publius Fannius Synistor, late 1st c. BCE
-wall surface dissolves behind columns and lintels
Late 1st c. CE
-intuitive perspective: architectural details follow diagonal lines that eye interprets as parallel lines receding into distance, and objects meant to be perceived as far away are shown slightly smaller. But no orderly focus of view.
Describe detail of wall painting in House of M. Lucretius Fronto
-painted room of black and red panels bordered with architectural moldings.
-no logic or any illusion of depth
-scene with figures in center flanked by two small simulated window openings protected by grilles.
Describe Still Life
wall painting from House of the Stags, before 79CE
-still green peaches picked from tree and jar half filled with water
-carefully arranged on two shelves to give composition clarity and balance.
-strong, clear light floods the picture from right to left, casting shadows, picking up highlights, and enhancing the illusion of real objects in real space.
Describe Young Woman Writing
wall painting, before 79CE
-regular features and curly hair caught in golden net
-may be somewhat idealized
-nibbles tip of her stylus. sweet expression and clear-eyed but unfocused and contemplative gaze suggest that she is composing.
When was the High Empire?
When was the Late Empire?
Describe Arch of Titus
81CE, Rome, concrete and white marble
-commemorates triumph, when victorious general paraded through city with troops, captives, and booty.
-freestanding gateway whose passage is covered by barrel vault
-arch serves as giant base, 50 feet tall, for statue of 4-horse chariot and driver (typical triumphal symbol)
-applied to faces of arch are columns in Composite order supporting entablature
-inscription declares that Senate and Roman people erected monument to honor Titus
Describe Spoils from the Temple of Solomon
Arch of Titus, marble
-Romans destroyed Second Temple in Jerusalem, carried off sacred treasures and displayed in triumphal procession of Rome.
-boisterous, disorderly crowd and might expect soldiers and onlookers to start shouting and chanting
Describe Triumphal Procession, Titus in Chariot
Arch of Titus, marble
-relaxed but formal solemnity (like Ara Pacis)
-showed spatial relationships among figures, varying height of relief by rendering nearer elements in higher relief than those more distant.
Describe Flavian Amphitheater
(Colosseum; got name from huge statue of Nero, "Colossus"), 70-80CE
-floor was laid over foundation of service rooms and tunnels that provided an area for performers, equipment, etc. floor was covered by sand
-constructed freestanding amphitheaters by placing two theaters facing each other to create oval. easy access and perfect sight lines for everyone and effective crowd control.
-ascending tiers of seats laid over barrel vaulted access corridors and entrance tunnels that connect rings of corridors to ramps and seats on each level
-walls on top level support huge awning that could shade seating areas.
Describe outer wall of Flavian Amphitheater
-3 levels of arcades surmounted by wall-like attic. each arch framed by engaged columns
-Entablature-like friezes mark divisions between levels.
-each level uses different architectural order, increasing in complexity. Tuscan order on bottom, Ionic on second, Corinthian on third, Corinthian pilasters on fourth
-attic story is broken by small, square windows, which originally alternated with gilded bronze shield-shaped ornaments called cartouches, supported on brackets.
-pilasters support another row of corbels beneath projecting cornice
-all decorative elements
Describe A Young Flavian Woman
-exemplifies current Roman ideal.
-well-observed, recognizable features - strong nose and jaw, heavy brows, deep-set eyes, and long neck - contrast with smoothly rendered flesh and soft, full lips.
-play of natural light over more subtly sculptured surfaces gives illusion of being reflected off real skin and hair
Describe Middle-Aged Flavian Woman
Late 1st. CE, marble
-reflects revival of veristic portraiture.
Describe the Basilica Ulpia
-basilica plan (obviously)
-had nave flanked by double colonnades surmounted by clerestory.
Describe Column of Trajan
113-116CE, marble, with base-125'
-spirals upward into band of 625ft.
-continuous pictorial narrative of Dacian campaigns.
-wider on top than bottom.
-topped by gilded bronze statue of Trajan replaced in 1588 by a Saint Peter. Trajan's ashes were placed in base in golden urn.
-natural and architectural elements in scenes kept small to emphasize the important figures.
Describe Romans Crossing the Danube and Building a Fort
lowest part of Column of Trajan
-Trajan's army crossing Danube river on pontoon bridge as first Dacian campaign of 101 gets under way. Soldiers construct battlefield headquarters from which men receive food, orders, etc.
-imperial propaganda. Trajan is portrayed as a strong, stable, and efficient commander of well-run army, and barbarian enemies are shown as worthy opponents of Rome.
-originally stood on podium and approached by stairs from colonnaded square.
-inscription states that it was built by Marcus Agrippa. Hadrian placed Agrippa's name up there in grand gesture to memory of illustrious consul
-eye is drawn upward over circular patterns made by coffers to oculus.
-marble veneer disguises internal brick arches and concrete structure. interior walls form drum that supports and buttresses the dome, disguised by two tiers of architectural detail and richly colored marble.
-wall is punctured by seven exedrae-rectangular alternating with semicircular-that originally held statues of gods.
Describe Canopus, Hadrian's Villa
-framed by colonnade with alternating semicircular and straight entablatures. led to outdoor dining room with concrete couches facing pool
-copies of famous Greek statues filled spaces between columns
Describe Hadrian's Wall
2nd c. CE, Great Britain
-defensive wall across northernmost boundary of empire.
-built of stone and turf.
-defended by forts at mile intervals along 73-mile length and defended by natural sharp drop-offs in terrain and ditch on north side and wide open side on south that allowed easy movement
-created symbolic and physical boundary between Roman territory and of the barbarians.
Describe Battle of Centaurs and Wild Beasts
118-128CE, Hadrian's Villa
-rocky landscape, centaur raises large boulder to crush tiger that has attacked and wounded female centaur. two other cats.
-rendered figures with three-dimensional shading, foreshortening, and great sensitivity to range of figure types
Describe The Unswept Floor
2ndc. CE, signed by Herakleitos
-speaks about society's system and ugh this is really self explanatory i mean really.
Describe Hadrian Hunting Boar and Sacrificing to Apollo
312-315CE. reused on Arch of Constantine
-roundels that contain images that affirm Hadrian's imperial stature and right to rule.
-Left, demonstrates courage and physical prowess in boar hunt
-Right, shows piety and appreciation to gods for their support for his endeavors by making sacrificial offering to Apollo at outdoor altar.
Describe Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius
176CE, bronze, originally gilded
-saved because mistaken for Constantine
-dressed as military commander in tunic and short, heavy cloak. Raised foreleg of horse once trampled crouching barbarian
-Marcus's thick, curly hair and full beard resembles "philosopher" portraits started by Hadrian.
-wears no armor and carries no weapons - conquers effortlessly with will of gods.
Describe Commodus as Hercules
-references Hercules's great deeds.
-sensitive modeling and expert drillwork exploit play of light and shadow on figure and bring out textures of hair, beard, facial features, and drapery.
-conveys illusion of life and movement, but also captures subject's foolishness in his pretentious assumption of attributes of Hercules
Describe Septimus Severus, Julia Domna, and Their Children, Geta and Caracalla
200CE, painted wood
-highly formal style of Fayum, Egypt.
-emperor clearly defined by distinctive beard and curled mustache, wears enormous crown. caraclla kills his brother. okay.
Early 3rd c. CE
-enhanced intensity of emperor's expression by producing strong contrasts of light and dark with careful chiseling and drillwork.
-chilling and calculating ruthlessness
-revealed himself as stern ruler with iron-fisted determination
Describe Baths of Caracalla
-strictly symmetrical plan
-moved from hot to warm to cold bath.
-also had exercise rooms, shops, latrines, dressing rooms on each side.
-also gardens, stadium, libraries, painting gallery, auditoriums, huge water reservoirs.
Describe Church of Santa Maria Degli Angeli
Converted to church by Michaelangelo in 1563
-originally frigidarium of Baths of Diocletian
-marble veneers and huge Corinthian columns and pilasters disguise structural concrete
Describe Philip the Arab
-only modeled broad structure of head
-used chisel and drill to deepen shadows and heighten effects of light in furrows of face and stiff folds of drapery
-seems more tense and worried, troubled man in troubled timesy
Describe Family Group, Vunnerius Keramus
250CE, engraved gold leaf sealed between glass
-subjects rendered as individuals
-emphasis on almond shaped eyes
-engraved and stippled on sheet of gold leaf sealed between two layers of glass
Describe Battle Between the Romans and the Barbarians, detail of Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus
-depicts Romans triumphing over barbarians
-squeezed figures into space with no attempt to create realistic illusion
-Romans on top of barbarians, who fall into twisted heap on bottom
Describe The Tetrarchs
300CE, Porphyry (purple rock)
-nearly identical. dressed in military garb and clasping swords at sides
-embrace each other in show of imperial unity, proclaiming peace through concerted strength and vigilance
-propaganda and summary of current state of affairs
-simplification of natural forms to geometric shapes
-emphasis on idea rather than figures
Describe Audience Hall of Constantine Chlorus (The Basilica at Trier)
-large size and simple plan and structure exemplify architecture of tetrarchs: imposing buildings that would impress their subjects
-large rectangular nave with strong directional focus to apse.
-brick walls on outside and marble veneer inside are pierced by two rows of arched window
-flat roof covers all.
-windows in apse slightly smaller and set higher to create illusion of greater distance and tetrarch enthroned in apse would appear larger than life
Describe Constantine the Great
325-326CE, marble, 30ft
-became permanent stand in for emperor
-his heavy jaw, hooked nose, and jutting chin have been incorporated into rigid, symmetrical pattern where other features like eyes, eyebrows, hair, have been simplified into repeated geometric arcs.
-projects imperial power and dignity with no hint of human frailty or imperfection
Describe the Arch of Constantine
-memorial to victory over Maxentius
-huge, triple arch
-reliefs panels taken from elsewhere on attic story flanking inscription
-on attached piers framing these panels are large statues of prisoners to celebrate Trajan's victory
-over each side arch are roundels from Hadrian.
-reused items showed Roman virtues of strength, courage, and piety
-new reliefs recount story of Constantine's victory and symbolize his power and generosity
Describe Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (Basilica Nova)
-Constantine put his own stamp on projects Maxentius had started
-may have changed layout by adding new entrance and apse
Mid-4thc. CE, silver
-Non-christians were being persecuted, but themes involving Bacchus allowed artists to have opportunity to create elaborate figural compositions displaying nude or lightly draped human body in complex, dynamic poses
-Bacchic revelers whirl, leap, and sway in and dance to satyr pipes
-head of sea god Oceanus in middle, ringed by nude females frolicking in waves with sea creatures
-detail, clarity, and liveliness reflect work of skillful artist
Describe Priestess of Bacchus
-right panel of diptych of Symmachus
-stately, elegantly dressed priestess burns incense at altar.
-wreath of ivy on head, sacred to Bacchus
-event takes place under oak tree, sacred to Jupiter
What are the Four Styles of Pompeian Painting?
Incrustation, Architectural, Ornate, Intricate
Describe Incrustation Style
-divided wall into bright polychrome panels of solid colors with occasional textural contrast
-continuation of Hellenistic practice
Describe Architectural Style
-space of room made to look as if it extended beyond room itself by representation of architectural forms in visually convincing perspective.
-columns, pilasters, and window frames painted on walls served as frames of distant views of cities and landscape.
-several vanishing points
Describe Ornate Style
-wall is subdivided into number of panels with vertical and horizontal bands that may be filled with vine scrolls or other designs
-flat nature of wall is reaffirmed
GUYS THE WALL IS FLAT THE WORLD MAKES SENSE AGAIN
-characterized by delicate forms and colors, graceful elegance, and deliberate rejection of monumental structureso