Flashcards in 14thc. in Europe Questions Deck (24):
Describe Madonna and Child and Tabernacle
1346. Bernardo Daddi. Tempera and gold on wood panel.
1355-59. Andrea Orcagna. Orsanmichele, Florence. MArble, mosaic, gold, lapis lazuli.
orsanmichele = grain market and warehouse
Describe The Triumph of Death
1330s. Mater of the Triumph of Death (Buffalmacco?). Fresco. Pisa.
-horror and terror of impending death
-center, dead people lie in heaps while devils and angels carry their souls.
-right, wealthy people listen to music, unaware of death.
-left, group on horseback observe themselves in coffins.
-beggars who beg death to free them from earthly miseries
Describe Piazza della Signoria with Palazzo della Signoria (Town Hall) and Loggia del Lanzi
1299-1310. and 1376-82. (Florence)
-town hall faces large square.
-loggia provided cover space for ceremonies and speeches.
-master builders: Berici di Cione and Simone Talenti.
Describe Florence Cathedral (Duomo)
1296-1378. Arnolfo di Cambio, Francesco Talenti, Andrea Orcagna
-sculptors and painters designed instead of architects, so lead to problems.
-long, square-bayed nave ends in octagonal domed crossing.
Describe Life of John the Baptist (bapistry doors)
1330-36. Andrea Pisano. Florence. Gilded bronze
-20 scenes from life of John set above 8 personifications of the Virtues
-reliefs framed by quatrefoils.
-reliefs in style inspired by Giotto
Describe Virgin and Child Enthroned (Church of Santa Trinita)
1280. Cimabue. Tempera and gold on wood panel.
-uses traditional Byzantine iconography
-surrounded by saints, angels, and OT prophets
-employed Byzantine formulas in proportions of figures, placement of schematic features, and tilt of haloed heads.
-highlighted drapery with thin lines of gold to indicate divinity.
-concern for spacial volumes, solid forms delicately modeled in light and shade, warmly naturalistic human figures
Describe Virgin and Child Enthroned (Church of the Ognissanti)
1305-10. Giotto di Bondone. Tempera and gold on wood panel.
-exhibits groundbreaking spatial consistency and sculptural solidity
-central and overtly symmetrical composition and position of figures reflect Cimabue's influence.
-Mary's face is individualized and natural action.
Describe Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel
1305. Giotto di Bondone. Northern Italy.
-dedicated to Virgin of Charity and of the Annunciation.
-built on ruins of ancient Roman arena
-simple, barrel-vaulted room.
-stories of Mary and Jesus on rectangular panels.
-base of faux marble and allegorical grisaille support vertical bands
Describe Marriage at Cana, Raising of Lazarus, Resurrection, etc.
1305. Giotto di Bondone. Arena Chapel.
-raising of Lazarus references Jesus's resurrection.
-wedding at Cana = wine as blood of Christ at Eucharist.
-Lamentation leads to the Resurrection as indicated by angels at the empty tomb.
-Noli Me Tangere (Do not touch me)
-juxtaposition of alive and dead trees tell death and resurrection.
-reminiscent of tableaux vivants (living pictures) where people dressed in costume and re-created poses from familiar works of art.
GIOTTO DI BONDONE. Arena Chapel.
-focused composition off center for maximum emotional effect
-bare tree on ridge = medieval symbol of death.
-mourning angels mirror his followers' anguish.
-John the evangelist flings his arm back in despair.
-conveys real human sorrow.
-Franciscan values of direct, emotional appeal and deliberate plainness.
Describe Virgin and Child in Majesty (Maesta)
1308-11. Duccio di Buoninsegna. Tempera and gold on wood panel.
-for the high altar of Siena Cathedral
-Mary and Christ, adored by angels and four patron saints of Siena kneeling in front.
-Virgin and Child represents Church and the Siena Cathedral.
-predella painted with events in childhood of Jesus.
-back painted with scenes of his adult life and miracles.
-topped with pinnacles
-soft style with linear grace and easy relationship between figures and setting (French Gothic)
-central, most holy figures retain solemnity and immobility with realistic touches.
-adoring saints reflect more naturalistic, courtly Gothic style.
-brilliant palette (pastels + primary hues), delicately patterned textiles that shimmer with gold, and ornate punchwork are characteristically Sienese.
Describe Nativity with Prophets Isiah and Ezekiel
Duccio. Predella of Maesta.
-Nativity represented in tradition of Byzantine icons.
-Mary lies on a fat mattress within a cave hollowed out of a jagged, stylized mountain.
-Jesus appears twice: lying in the manger and with midwife below.
-light, intense colors, and calligraphic linear quality
-shepherds and sheep add realistic touch
Describe Fresco Series of the Sala Della Pace (chamber of peace), Palazzo Pubblico (city hall)
1338-40. Ambrogio Lorenzetti. Siena.
-depict results of good and bad government.
-on short wall, figure symbolizing the Commune of Siena, enthroned like an emperor holding an orb and scepter and surrounded by Virtues.
-Justice, assisted by Wisdom and Concord, oversees the local magistrates.
-Peace lounges on a bench against a pile of armor, having defeated War.
-figure is based on a fragment of a Roman sarcophagus in Siena
Allegory of Good Government in the City and in the Country
Lorenzetti. Salla della Pace. Fresco.
-idealized but recognizable portrait of Siena.
-strets are filled with productive citizens.
-Porta Romana (Siena's gateway to Rome) divides city from country.
-over portal is Romulus and Remus statue.
-woman hovering outside gate clad in transparent drapery with scroll in one hand a miniature gallows with a hanged man represents Security.
-her scroll bids those entering the city to come in peace.
-gallows is reminder of consequences of not doing so.
-Ambrogio maintained an overall visual coherence and kept all parts of the flowing composition intelligible.
-maintained natural relationship between figures and environment.
-conveys vision of orderly society of peace.
Describe Pages with Betrayal and Arrest of Christ and Anunciation
1325-28. Jean Pucelle. Paris. Grisaille and color on vellum.
-from the Book of Hours of Jeanne D'evreux
-Charles IV gave to Jeanne.
-Queen Jeanne appears in the initial below the Annunciation.
-inclusion of patron in prayer within scene conveyed idea that scenes were visions inspired by meditation rather than historical events.
-Annunciation (joy) is paired with sorrow.
-Annunciation - Mary is shown receiving archangel Gabriel in Gothic clothing.
-frolicking children above appear to be playing tag or other game. in medieval times, symbolized mocking of Christ or betrayal of Judas because he tags his friends.
-in Betrayal, Judas embraces Jesus. Bas de page shows knights riding goats and jousting at a barrel stuck on a pole, spoof of military that may comment on lack of valor of the soldiers assaulting Jesus.
Describe Virgin and Child
1339. Silver gilt and enamel.
-ex-treasure of Abbey Church of Saint-Denis.
-inscription on base bears date and donor's name, Queen Jeanne.
-Virgin holds Jesus in her left arm, her weight on her left leg, creating graceful S-curve (characteristic of period)
-Fluid drapery, suggesting consistency of heavy silk
-originally wore crown, scepter topped with a large enameled and jeweled fleur-de-lis (symbol of French royalty)
-scepter served as reliquary for Mary's hair.
-face anticipated Beautiful Mother imagery
-realism in Jesus through babylike proportions and gestures
-enameled base of Christ's Passion
Describe Attack on the Castle of Love
1330-50. Paris. Ivory box with iron mounts.
-God of Love shoots flowers as missiles and joust with flowers.
-tournament in front of Castle of Love.
-women watch jousting knights. on left, knights use crossbows and catapult to hurl roses at the castle, while God of Love helps women by aiming his arrows at the attackers.
-on right, tournament's victor and his lady love meet in a playful joust of their own.
Describe Life of the Virgin (back of the Chichester constable chasuble)
1330-50. Red velvet with silk and metallic thread and seed pearls.
-on liturgical vestment
-resembles burnished gold-leaf backgrounds of manuscript illuminations.
-Annunciation, Adoration of the Magi, and Coronation of Virgin are set in cusped, crocketed ogee (s-shaped) arches amid twisting branches spouting oak leaves, seed-pearl acorns, and animal masks.
-star and crescent moon in Coronation are heraldic emblems of Edward III.
Describe Exeter Cathedral
14th c. England.
-Decorated style. diamond-shaped piers covered with colonenettes.
-Perpendicular style. rectilinear patterns and sharp angular shapes. simple stripped-down patterns.
Describe Church of the Holy Cross
1317. Germany. Heinrich and Peter Parler
-choir designed in the manner of a hall church of enlarged triple-aisle form with ring of deep chapels between buttresses of the choir.
-unity of space was enhanced by complex net vault - veritable web of ribs created by eliminating transverse ribs and ridge ribs.
-complexity led to unified interior space of Renaissance.
Describe Saint Wenceslas Chapel, Cathedral of Saint Vitus
Peter Parler and workshop. Prague. 1356. Tabernacle. gilded iron.
-suggests richness and elaborateness of Peter's work.
Describe Saint Luke
Master Theodoric. 1360-64. Prague. Paint and gold on panel.
-might be self-portrait since looking out at viewer.
-style: heavy bodies, oversized heads and hands, dour and haunted faces, and soft, deeply modeled drapery (merged from French Gothic to become Beautiful style)
Describe "Beautiful" Virgin and Child
1390. Limestone with paint and gilding.
-sweet-faced Virgin and Child.
-v-shaped folds and clusters of vertical folds end in rippling edges surround infant to create feeling of a fleeting moment.
-emotions are restrained.