Flashcards in 15thc. Renaissance Art in Italy Questions Deck (37):
Describe The Battle of San Romano
Paolo Uccello. 1438-40. Tempera on wood panel.
-Florentine general Niccolo da Tolentino leads his men against the Sienese at the Battle of San Romano.
-Niccolo holds aloft a baton of command, sign of authority.
-bold gesture and colors ensure that he dominates scene.
-one-point (linear) perspective
Describe The Delivery of they Keys to Saint Peter
Perugino. Fresco on the right wall of Sistine Chapel.
-portrayed event that provided biblical support for supremacy of papal authority, Christ's giving the keys of the kingdom of heaven to Peter.
-banded paving stones provide geometric grid for perspectival recession.
-composition divided horizontally between lower frieze of massive figures and band of widely spaced buildings.
-vertically divided by open space at center between Christ and Peter and by summetrical architectural forms on each side of central axis.
-triumphal arches frame church and focus attention on center of composition.
-softened by subdued colors, distant idealized landscape and cloudy skies, and varied figures' positions.
Describe Dome of Florence Cathedral
Filippo Brunelleschi. 1417-36.
-constructed a tall octagonal drum as base.
-dome is double shell of masonry. octogonal outer shell supported on 8 large and 16 lighter ribs.
-system in which temporary wooden supports up as building progressed.
Describe Old Sacristy
Filippo Brunelleschi. 1421-28.
Church of San Lorenzo, Florence.
-room where ritual attire and vessels are kept
-centralized plan. became ideal derived from the humanist belief that the circle was a symbol of divine perfection and that both the circle inscribed in a square and the cross inscribed in a circle were symbols of the cosmos
Describe the Church of San Lorenzo
Filippo Brunelleschi. 1421-28.
-basilican plan with long nave flanked by side aisles that open into shallow lateral chapels.
-short transept and square crossing lead to square sanctuary flanked by additional chapels opening off the transept.
-based plan on square module: basic unit of measure that could be multiplied or divided and applied to every element of the design. result was clear, harmonious spaces.
-ornamental details, all classical style, were carved in pietra serena, a grayish stone that became synonymous with Brunelleschi's interiors.
-arches of nave arcade are carried on tall, slender Corinthian columns made even taller by insertion of impost block between column capital and springing of round arches.
-square crossing covered by hemispherical dome. nave and transept by flat ceilings.
Describe Palazzo Medici-Riccardi
1446. Florence. Attributed to Michelozzo di Bartolomeo
-exterior was in keeping with republican political climate and Florentine religious attitudes imbued with Franciscan ideals of poverty and charity.
-sumptuary laws forbade ostentatious displays of wealth, but often ignored.
-palazzo symbolized family and underscored family's place in society and linked to seat of government.
-harmonious proportions and elegant, classically inspired deatils.
-facade of large, rusticated stone blocks derived from fortifications (typical of Florentine town house exteriors)
-on facade, stories clearly set off from each other by change in stone surfaces from very rough at ground to almost smooth on third.
Describe Palazzo Rucellai
Leon Battista Alberti. Florence. 1455-58.
-never finished because could never acquire land.
-designed five-bay facade with central door.
-simple rectangular front suggesting coherent, cubical three-story building capped with an overhanging cornice.
-created systematic divisions on surface of lightly rusticated wall with horizontal-vertical pattern of different pilasters and architraves. inspired by Colosseum.
Describe The Four Crowned Matyrs
Nanni di Banco. 1409-17. Marble. Osanmichele.
-martyrs for refusing to make an image of pagan Roman god.
-resembles Gothic chapel, but Roman-stylized sculptures
-stand in semicircle with forward feet and drapery protruding beyond floor.
-panel below niche: figures have solid vigor done by deeply undercutting both figures and objects to cast shadows and enhance illusion of 3D.
Describe Saint George
Donatello. 1415-17. Marble.
-would have been ad for guild.
-he holds his shield squarely in front of his braces legs.
-seems alert and ready, but face is tense and worried.
-base: George is seen slaying a dragon to save the princess, low-relief.
-contours of foreground figures are slightly undercut to emphasize their mass, while landscape and architecture are progressively lower relief until they are barely incised rather than carved > spatial setting
Describe Gates of Paradise (East Door), Baptistry of San Giovanni
Lorenzo Ghiberti. 1425-52. Gilt bronze.
-set of 10 Old Testament scenes, from Creation to Solomon.
-organized space with linear perspective.
-background and foreground clearly marked.
Describe Jacob and Esau, Panel of the Gates of Paradies
Lorenzo Ghiberti. 1435. Gilded bronze.
-unifies composition by paying careful attention to one-point perspective.
-squares marked out in pavement establish orthogonal lines.
-story starts in background.
-In Renaissance, Esau = Jews and Jacob = Christians. explains conflict between two religions and compositionally balances the panel on the opposite door valve.
Donatello. 1446-60. Bronze.
-first life-size male nude.
-classical tradition of heroic nudity, but sensous, adolescent boy.
-standing on Goliath's severed head.
Describe Equestrian Monument of Erasmo da Narni (Gattamelata)
Donatello. 1443-53. Piazza del Santo, Padua. Bronze.
-sources were two surviving Roman bronze equestrian portraits. (marcus aurelius + lost)
-demonstrated virtues of bravery, nobility, and authority.
-horse symbolized passions and man's physical animal nature.
-skilled horsemanship showed physical and intellectual control
-stern but sad expressions suggest old warrior tired from constant need for military vigilance and rapid response
Describe Equestrian Monument of Bartolommeo Colleoni, Campo Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice
Andrea del Verrocchio. 1486-88. Bronze.
-commissioned by government to honor this Venetian army general
-tense form that conveys vitality and brutal energy.
Describe Mary Magdalen
Donatello. 1450s. Polychromy and gold on wood.
-emaciated, vacant-eyed hermit clothed by her own hair.
Describe Hercules and Antaeus
Antonio del Pollaiuolo. 1475. Bronze.
-complex interlocking figures with explosive energy
-Hercules gained immortality by slaving Antaeus in wrestling match.
Describe Battle of the Nudes
Antonio del Pollaiuolo. 1465-70. Engraving.
-men fight against each other against tapestry-like background.
-seems to have been drawn from a single model in variety of poses.
-depicts muscles reacting to tension.
Describe Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors
Masaccio. 1425-27. Church of Santa Maria Novella.
-meant to give illusion of a stone funerary monument and altar table set below a deep framed niche in the wall.
-praying donors in front may be members of Lenzi family.
-unusual trompe l'oeil effect of looking up into barrel-vaulted niche (linear perspective)
-painted architecture = unusual combination of classical columns.
-trinity represented by Jesus on cross, dove of Holy spirit, and God the Father standing behind cross on high platform.
-source of light lies in front of picture.
-Jesus flanked by Mary and John.
-open sarcophagus is skeleton that reminds of death and reminds of Adam
Describe The Expulsion from Paradise
Masaccio. 1427. Brancacci Chapel. Fresco.
-Adam and Eve as monumental nude figures.
-focused on mass of bodies formed by underlying bone and muscle structure to create new realism.
-used generalized light shining from single source.
Describe The Tribute Money
Masaccio. 1427. Brancacci Chapel. Fresco.
-continuous narrative of three scenes
-group of people form central clear focus.
-linear perspective and atmospheric perspective for two vanishing points.
-modeled foreground figures with strong highlights and cast long shadows on ground toward left, implying light source at far right
-colors vary in tone according to strength of illumination
-halo as gold disk
Describe Annunciation North Corridor, Monastery of San Marco, Florence
Fra Angelico. 1438-45. Fresco.
-illusion of space created by linear perspective
-slender, graceful figures wearing flowing draperies assume modest poses
-light from left casts supernatural radiance over their faces and hands.
-scene is vision that welcomes monks to most private areas of monastery and prepares them for meditations
Describe The Last Supper
Andrea del Castagno. 1447. Florence. Fresco.
-house of marble panels.
-John sleeps, head on table.
-Judas sits on other side of the table
-only lines on ceiling converge.
Describe Courtyard, Ducal Palace, Urbino
Luciano Laurana. 1467-72. Italy.
-commissioned by Count Federico da Montefeltro
-ground level portico has arches supported by columns
-corner angles bridged with piers having engaged columns
Describe Studiolo of Federico da Montefeltro, Ducal Palace, Urbino
1476. Intarsia. Woodwork (Giuliano da Maiano)
-room for private conversation and collection of fine books and art objects
-scenes made entirely of wood inlaid on flat surfaces with applied linear perspective and foreshortening
squirrel - ideal ruler
Describe Recognition and Proving of the True Cross
Piero della Francesca. 1450s. Fresco.
-cross was buried after crucifixion, but Helena (mother of Constantine) discovered and proved authenticity of cross when its touch brought man back to life
-analytical modeling and perspectival projection
-reduced figures to cylindrical and ovoid shapes
-foreshortening of figures and objects
Describe Battista Sforza and Federico da Montefeltro, Triumph of Federico and Battista
Piero della Francesca. 1474. Oil on wood panel.
-Federico and wife, Battista
-resemble Flemish painting because detail and luminosity
-Federico actually has two disfiguring scars, but painting in profile masked it (loss of right eye from sword blow and broken nose)
-reverse side reflects humanist interests
-engraved are stanzas praising the couple's virtues. (Federico's moderation and fame of it, and Battista's restraint, shining in glory of her husband)
-White horses pull Federico's wagon, crowned by winged figure (Victory or Fortune) and accompanied with Justice, Prudence, Fortitude, and Temperance.
-Battista's cart is pulled by winged putto driving a team of unicorns. Virtues standing behind her may be Chastity and Modesty. In front are Faith and Charity, who holds a pelican. (may symbolize recently deceased Battista's maternal sacrifices)
Describe Church of Sant'Andrea
Leon Battista Alberti. 1472. Mantua.
-believed to house actual blood of Christ
-proposed to build "Etruscan temple" to house people
-Latin cross plan, transept intersects nave.
-barrel vaulted chapels at right angles
-classical forms: a temple front and triumphal arch with two sets of Corinthian pilasters
Describe Camera Picta, Ducal Palace, Mantua
Andrea Mantegna. 1465-74. Frescoes.
-around walls, family receives its returning cardinal in scenes set in landscape and loggias.
-paintings create continuous scene with figures and countryside behind fictive arcade.
-people are all recognizable portraits of family and court
-domed ceiling, radical perspective (di sotto in su "from below upwards")
-appears to be open to cloud-filled sky through large oculus in simulated marble and mosaic covered vault. 3 young women and African man peer into room below
-4th young woman in veil looks upward. Peacock and putti play around balustrade.
Describe View of the Sassetti Chapel, Church of Santa Trinita
Domenico Ghirlandaio. Frescoes of scenes from Legend of Saint Francis.
-In uppermost tiers, Pope Honorius confirms the Franciscan order.
-Loggia of the Lancers and Palazzo can be seen.
-All figures are well-known Florentines
-middle register, a small boy who has fallen from an upper window is resurrected by Saint Francis and witnessed by Flornentines like members of Sassetti family
Describe Nativity and Adoration of the Shepherds
Domenico Ghirlandaio. Sassetti Chapel Panel. 1485.
-inspired by Portinari altarpiece
-Christ lies on ground, adored by Mary, while shepherds kneel at right
-manger is ancient sarcophagus with inscription that promises resurrection
-classical arch with reference to Roman general Pompey frames road along which Magi travel
-weighty, restrained figures
-foreground, background, middle ground joined by road and aerial perspective
iris = Passion
Sandro Botticelli. 1482. Tempera on wood panel.
-recalls Flemish painting
-highly complex allegory weaving Neoplatonic ideas with references to classical sources
-Venus had two natures: ruled over human, earthly love and over universal divine love. could argue that Venus = Virgin Mary
-theme suggests love and fertility in marriage and provide Venus as model for ideal woman.
-Venus silhouetted and framed by arching view through trees. Flanked by Flora, Roman goddess of flowers, and by the Three Graces. Her son, Cupid, aims arrow at Graces.
-Far right, wind god, Zephyr, in pursuit of nymph Chloris, breath causing her to sprout flowers from her mouth
-Far left, Mercury, messenger, uses caduceus to dispel patch of grey clouds drifting in Venus's direction. He is sign of May, and he looks out of painting to summer.
-Venus stands in grove of orange trees (Medici symbol) weighted down with fruit (fertility)
Cupid = romantic desire
Flora's festival had definite sexual overtones
Describe Birth of Venus
Sandro Botticelli. 1484-86. Tempera and gold on canvas
-represents Neoplatonic idea of divine love and based on antique statue type "modest Venus"
-hair enhances or hides sexuality
-Blown by Zephyr (and Chloris).
-Venus welcomed by a devotee (one of the Hours) who holds garment embroidered with flowers.
birth of venus = birth of idea of beauty
Describe Mystic Nativity
Sandro Botticelli. 1500. Oil on canvas
-Nativity takes place in rocky, forested landscape in cave-stable
-Virgin Mary kneels before Christ Child
-Joseph crouches and hides his face
-circle of singing angels holding golden crowns and laurel branches flies above central scene
-Tiny devils, try to escape from bottom
-frieze of wrestling figures below Family. Men are ancient classical philosophers, who struggle with angels. Each holds an olive branch (peace) and scroll.
Describe Ca D'Oro
1421-37. Cortinari Palace.
-home of Marino Contarini
-front with 3 superimposed loggias
-asymmetrical elevation is based on a traditional Byzantine plan
-wide central hall ran from front to back all the way through the building to small inner courtyard with well and garden.
-entrance on canal permitted goods to be delivered directly into warehouse
-principal floor (2nd level) had salon and reception room.
Describe Procession of the Relic of the True Cross Before the Church of Saint Mark
Gentile Bellini. 1496. Oil on canvas.
-Saint John the Evangelist carries True Cross in procession through square
-depicts miraculous recovery of sick child whose father, the man in red kneeling to right, prayed as it passed by
-cityscape with great accuracy and detail
Describe Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints Francis, John the Baptists, Job, Dominic, Sebastian, and Louis of Toulouse
Giovanni Bellini. 1478. Oil on wood panel.
-painted for Chapel of the Hospital of San Giobbe (Saint Job)
-shows dramatic perspectival view up into vaulted apse
-gold mosaic recalls Byzantine