16thc. Northern Europe Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 16thc. Northern Europe Questions Deck (28):
1

Describe Melencolia I

Albrecht Durer. 1514. Engraving.
-superhuman, brooding figure surrounded by tools and symbols of arts and humanities, but still unable to act
-figure wears wreath of watercress and ranunculus, plants thought to cure dryness caused by melancholy.
-figure's crumpled purse plies on ground, representing craving, but absence of wealth.
-"I" because melancholy took three forms. this one is struggling with burden of creative imagination.

2

Describe Altarpiece of the Holy Blood (open)

Tilman Riemenschneider. 1499-1505. Limewood.
-main scene is last supper. moment when Christ revealed that one of his followers would betray him. made Judas the central figure and placed Jesus off-center at left.
-Jesus extends morsel of food. apostle points down to Crucifix in predella.
-repeated limited number of facial types. large heads, prominent figures, sharp cheekbones, sagging jowls, baggy eyes, and elaborate hair with thick wavy locks and curls
-muscles, etc. are lifelike

3

Describe Annunciation and Virgin of the Rosary

Veit Stoss. 1517-18. Painted and gilt limewood.
-for choir of Church of Saint Lawrence
-Gabriel's greating to Mary takes place in wreath of roses symbolizing prayers of rosary, popularized by Dominicans
-disks are carved with scenes of Joys of the Virgin
-adored and supported by angels

4

Describe Isenheim Altarpiece (Closed)

Matthias Grunewald. 1500. Painted and gilt limewood.
-closed altarpiece shows Crucifixion in darkened landscape and Lamentation on predella.
-Saints Sebastian and Anthony Abbot standing on pedestals on wings
-showed Jesus in most brutal form
-Virgin Mary collapsed in arms of John. Mary Magdalen in anguish on her knees
-John the Baptist and land, holding cross and bleeding from breast, allude to baptism, Eucharist, and sacrificial Lamb of God.
-First Opening shows Annunciation, Nativity, and Resurrection. illuminated.
-Left, may have been inspired by Golden Mass, which celebrated divine motherhood of Virgin. included staged reenactment of angel's visit to Mary
-Central, heavenly and earthly realms joined in one space. mother adores Child while envisioning her own future as Queen of Heaven.
-Three angels: young, mature, and feathered hybrid with birdlike crest on its human head
enclosed garden, white towel on tub, clear glass cruet = Mary's virginity
fig tree = Virgin birth (figs thought to bear fruit without pollination)
red roses = Mary and Passion of Jesus (Crucifixion)
-Right, Christ's explosive emergence from tomb tumbles guards, and dissolving, translucent figure shows no longer material but not yet entirely spiritual form.
2nd opening = Hagenauer's sculpture reserved for special festivals of Saint Anthony. Wings show Anthony being attacked by horrible demons.

5

Describe Self-Portrait (Albrecht Durer)

1500. Oil on wood panel.
-idealized, almost Christ-like figure in frontal pose.
-fur-lined robe and flowing locks create equilateral triangle, the timeless symbol of unity

6

Describe Four Housemen of the Apocalypse

Durer. 1497-98. Woodcut.
-crowned rider, armed with bow, on white horse is Conquest.
-ride with sword on red horse = War
-ride with set of scales on black horse = Plague and Famine
-rider on sickly pale horse = Death
-compact overlapping group trampling men

7

Describe Adam and Eve

Durer. 1504. Engraving.
-first documented use of ideal human proportions based on Roman copies of Greek sculpture.
-plants and animals represented in naturalistic detail.
melancholy elk, choleric cat, phlegmatic fox, sensual rabbit = four human temperaments
mouse = Satan
parrot = false wisdom

8

Describe Four Apostles

Durer. 1526. Oil on wood panel.
-professed his Lutheranism.
-left, elderly Peter behind John, who holds an open Gospel that reads "in the beginning was the Word" which reinforced Protestant emphasis on Bible.
-Right, Mark stands behind Paul, who teachings were admired by protestants.
-long inscription on frame warns viewer not to be led astray by "false prophets" but to heed words of NT as recorded by these "four excellent men"

9

Describe Nymph of the Spring

Lucas Cranach the Elder. 1537. Oil on panel.
-turns nymph into highly provocative woman, who glances out of half-closed eyes.
-cast aside fashionable red velvet gown, but still wears jewelry and transparent veil that enhances her nudity.
pair of partridges = Venus and married love
-Cupid's bow and quiver is hanging on tree.

10

Describe Danube Landscape

Albrecht Altdorfer. 1525. Oil on vellum on wood panel.
-pure landscape painting

11

Describe Francis I

Jean Clouet. 1525-30. Oil and tempera on wood panel.
-created flattering image by modeling his distinctive features with subtle shading
-image of pure power. king's thick neck and huge body seems at odds with nervous movement of his figures.

12

Describe Chateau of Chenonceau

France. 1513-21.
-reflects classical principles of geometric regularity and symmetry. rectangular building with rooms arranged on each side of a wide central hall.

13

Describe Stucco and Wall Painting, Chamber of the Duchess of Etampes

Primaticcio. France. 1540s.
-had lithe figures of stucco nymphs, with long necks and small heads.
-spiraling postures are sexual.

14

Describe West Wing of the Cour Carre, Palais du Louvre

Pierre Lescot. Paris. 1546.
-incorporates Renaissance ideals of balance and regularity with classical architectural details and rich sculptural decoration
-irregular roof lines give way to rounded arches and horizontal balustrades.

15

Describe Oval Plate

Bernard Palissy. 1570-1590. Polychromed tin and glazed earthenware.
-style rustique
-decorated in high relief with plants, reptiles, and insects that resemble descriptions of grotto

16

Describe El Escorial

Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera. 1563-84. Madrid.
-great monastery complex
-reflected Roman classical concepts
-grandeur comes from overwhelming size, fine proportions, and excellent masonry.
-final design combined ideas of Italian classicism in geometric clarity and symmetry and use of superimposed orders on facade
-also embodies deeply religious spirit of Spanish Philip II.

17

Describe Burial of Count Orgaz

El Greco. 1586. Oil on canvas.
-reenacts miraculous burial.
-angel lifts Orgaz's soul through heavenly hosts towards enthroned Christ at apex.
-space filled with portraits of local aristocracy and religious notables.
-8 year old son at lower left next to Saint Stephen
-distinguished between heaven and earth by elongation of heavenly figures and light emanating from Christ

18

Describe View of Toledo

El Greco. 1610. Oil on canvas.
-topographical cityscape transformed into mystical illusion by stormy sky and restricted palette

19

Describe Garden of Earthly Delights

Hieronymus Bosch. 1505-15. Oil on wood panel.
-subject is Christian belief in human beings' natural state of sinfulness. damnation is natural outcome of a life lived in ignorance and folly
-left, God introduces Adam and Eve, under watchful eye of owl of perverted wisdom (wisdom and folly)
-central, earth teems with revelers, monstrous birds, huge fruits (fertility and sexual abandon)
-right, sensual pleasures become torture in dark world of fire and ice.

20

Describe Saint Luke Painting the Virgin Mary

Jan Gossaert. 1520. Oil on wood panel.
-Mary and Christ Child appear to Luke in vision of golden light and clouds
-saint kneels at desk, drawing, his hand guided by angel
-behind saint, seated on round, columnar structure is Moses, holding tablets of the Law.
-shoes are removed in presence of God

21

Describe The Banker and his Wife

Marinus van Reymerswaele. 1540. Oil on wood panel.
-banker greedily counts coins, watched by young wife who turns pages of account book
-themes of "the power of women" and "mismatched couple" because old man with a young woman
-recalls sins of lust and greed (folly of ill-matched lovers and sin caused by love of money)

22

Describe Self-Portrait (Caterina van Hemessen)

1548. Oil on wood panel.
-serious young person without personal vanity and self-assured
-inscription identifies her (20 years old)

23

Describe The Fall of Icarus

Pieter Bruegel the Elder. 1555-56. Oil on panel transferred to canvas.
-story of Icarus
-workers do not notice Icarus

24

Describe Return of the Hunters

Pieter Bruegel the Elder. 1565. Oil on wood panel.
-one of a cycle of 6 panels
-no middle ground
-December/January
-hunters have backs turned and do not reveal feelings
-inn at left where worker moves a table to receive a pig that others are singeing in a fire
-everyday life
-sharp diagonals

25

Describe Henry VIII

Hans Holbein the Younger. 1540. Oil on wood panel.
-age 49, as per inscription
-imitated French fashions and copied French king's beard
-huge frame
-puffed-sleeve coat of heavy brocade trimmed with fur

26

Describe Princess Elizabeth

Levina Bening Teerlinc. 1559. Oil on oak panel.
-pearled cap set back to expose famous red hair
-brocaded outer dress split to expose underskirt of cut velvet
-books display her love of learning

27

Describe George Clifford, Third Earl of Cumberland

Nicholas Hilliard. 1595. Watercolor on card.
-regular participant in annual tilts and festivals
-wears richly engraved and gold-inlaid suit of armor

28

Describe Hardwick Hall, Shrewsbury

Robert Smythson. 1591-97. England.
-Elizabethan house.
-two story entrance hall with symmetrical rooms (balanced)
-High Great Chamber designed to display set of six Brussels tapestries with story of Ulysses.
-frieze depicts Diana and her maiden hunters in forest where they pursue stags and boards
-in window, frieze turns into allegory of seasons.
Venus whipping Cupid = Spring
goddess Ceres = summer