Flashcards in 16thc. Northern Europe Questions Deck (28):
Describe Melencolia I
Albrecht Durer. 1514. Engraving.
-superhuman, brooding figure surrounded by tools and symbols of arts and humanities, but still unable to act
-figure wears wreath of watercress and ranunculus, plants thought to cure dryness caused by melancholy.
-figure's crumpled purse plies on ground, representing craving, but absence of wealth.
-"I" because melancholy took three forms. this one is struggling with burden of creative imagination.
Describe Altarpiece of the Holy Blood (open)
Tilman Riemenschneider. 1499-1505. Limewood.
-main scene is last supper. moment when Christ revealed that one of his followers would betray him. made Judas the central figure and placed Jesus off-center at left.
-Jesus extends morsel of food. apostle points down to Crucifix in predella.
-repeated limited number of facial types. large heads, prominent figures, sharp cheekbones, sagging jowls, baggy eyes, and elaborate hair with thick wavy locks and curls
-muscles, etc. are lifelike
Describe Annunciation and Virgin of the Rosary
Veit Stoss. 1517-18. Painted and gilt limewood.
-for choir of Church of Saint Lawrence
-Gabriel's greating to Mary takes place in wreath of roses symbolizing prayers of rosary, popularized by Dominicans
-disks are carved with scenes of Joys of the Virgin
-adored and supported by angels
Describe Isenheim Altarpiece (Closed)
Matthias Grunewald. 1500. Painted and gilt limewood.
-closed altarpiece shows Crucifixion in darkened landscape and Lamentation on predella.
-Saints Sebastian and Anthony Abbot standing on pedestals on wings
-showed Jesus in most brutal form
-Virgin Mary collapsed in arms of John. Mary Magdalen in anguish on her knees
-John the Baptist and land, holding cross and bleeding from breast, allude to baptism, Eucharist, and sacrificial Lamb of God.
-First Opening shows Annunciation, Nativity, and Resurrection. illuminated.
-Left, may have been inspired by Golden Mass, which celebrated divine motherhood of Virgin. included staged reenactment of angel's visit to Mary
-Central, heavenly and earthly realms joined in one space. mother adores Child while envisioning her own future as Queen of Heaven.
-Three angels: young, mature, and feathered hybrid with birdlike crest on its human head
enclosed garden, white towel on tub, clear glass cruet = Mary's virginity
fig tree = Virgin birth (figs thought to bear fruit without pollination)
red roses = Mary and Passion of Jesus (Crucifixion)
-Right, Christ's explosive emergence from tomb tumbles guards, and dissolving, translucent figure shows no longer material but not yet entirely spiritual form.
2nd opening = Hagenauer's sculpture reserved for special festivals of Saint Anthony. Wings show Anthony being attacked by horrible demons.
Describe Self-Portrait (Albrecht Durer)
1500. Oil on wood panel.
-idealized, almost Christ-like figure in frontal pose.
-fur-lined robe and flowing locks create equilateral triangle, the timeless symbol of unity
Describe Four Housemen of the Apocalypse
Durer. 1497-98. Woodcut.
-crowned rider, armed with bow, on white horse is Conquest.
-ride with sword on red horse = War
-ride with set of scales on black horse = Plague and Famine
-rider on sickly pale horse = Death
-compact overlapping group trampling men
Describe Adam and Eve
Durer. 1504. Engraving.
-first documented use of ideal human proportions based on Roman copies of Greek sculpture.
-plants and animals represented in naturalistic detail.
melancholy elk, choleric cat, phlegmatic fox, sensual rabbit = four human temperaments
mouse = Satan
parrot = false wisdom
Describe Four Apostles
Durer. 1526. Oil on wood panel.
-professed his Lutheranism.
-left, elderly Peter behind John, who holds an open Gospel that reads "in the beginning was the Word" which reinforced Protestant emphasis on Bible.
-Right, Mark stands behind Paul, who teachings were admired by protestants.
-long inscription on frame warns viewer not to be led astray by "false prophets" but to heed words of NT as recorded by these "four excellent men"
Describe Nymph of the Spring
Lucas Cranach the Elder. 1537. Oil on panel.
-turns nymph into highly provocative woman, who glances out of half-closed eyes.
-cast aside fashionable red velvet gown, but still wears jewelry and transparent veil that enhances her nudity.
pair of partridges = Venus and married love
-Cupid's bow and quiver is hanging on tree.
Describe Danube Landscape
Albrecht Altdorfer. 1525. Oil on vellum on wood panel.
-pure landscape painting
Describe Francis I
Jean Clouet. 1525-30. Oil and tempera on wood panel.
-created flattering image by modeling his distinctive features with subtle shading
-image of pure power. king's thick neck and huge body seems at odds with nervous movement of his figures.
Describe Chateau of Chenonceau
-reflects classical principles of geometric regularity and symmetry. rectangular building with rooms arranged on each side of a wide central hall.
Describe Stucco and Wall Painting, Chamber of the Duchess of Etampes
Primaticcio. France. 1540s.
-had lithe figures of stucco nymphs, with long necks and small heads.
-spiraling postures are sexual.
Describe West Wing of the Cour Carre, Palais du Louvre
Pierre Lescot. Paris. 1546.
-incorporates Renaissance ideals of balance and regularity with classical architectural details and rich sculptural decoration
-irregular roof lines give way to rounded arches and horizontal balustrades.
Describe Oval Plate
Bernard Palissy. 1570-1590. Polychromed tin and glazed earthenware.
-decorated in high relief with plants, reptiles, and insects that resemble descriptions of grotto
Describe El Escorial
Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera. 1563-84. Madrid.
-great monastery complex
-reflected Roman classical concepts
-grandeur comes from overwhelming size, fine proportions, and excellent masonry.
-final design combined ideas of Italian classicism in geometric clarity and symmetry and use of superimposed orders on facade
-also embodies deeply religious spirit of Spanish Philip II.
Describe Burial of Count Orgaz
El Greco. 1586. Oil on canvas.
-reenacts miraculous burial.
-angel lifts Orgaz's soul through heavenly hosts towards enthroned Christ at apex.
-space filled with portraits of local aristocracy and religious notables.
-8 year old son at lower left next to Saint Stephen
-distinguished between heaven and earth by elongation of heavenly figures and light emanating from Christ
Describe View of Toledo
El Greco. 1610. Oil on canvas.
-topographical cityscape transformed into mystical illusion by stormy sky and restricted palette
Describe Garden of Earthly Delights
Hieronymus Bosch. 1505-15. Oil on wood panel.
-subject is Christian belief in human beings' natural state of sinfulness. damnation is natural outcome of a life lived in ignorance and folly
-left, God introduces Adam and Eve, under watchful eye of owl of perverted wisdom (wisdom and folly)
-central, earth teems with revelers, monstrous birds, huge fruits (fertility and sexual abandon)
-right, sensual pleasures become torture in dark world of fire and ice.
Describe Saint Luke Painting the Virgin Mary
Jan Gossaert. 1520. Oil on wood panel.
-Mary and Christ Child appear to Luke in vision of golden light and clouds
-saint kneels at desk, drawing, his hand guided by angel
-behind saint, seated on round, columnar structure is Moses, holding tablets of the Law.
-shoes are removed in presence of God
Describe The Banker and his Wife
Marinus van Reymerswaele. 1540. Oil on wood panel.
-banker greedily counts coins, watched by young wife who turns pages of account book
-themes of "the power of women" and "mismatched couple" because old man with a young woman
-recalls sins of lust and greed (folly of ill-matched lovers and sin caused by love of money)
Describe Self-Portrait (Caterina van Hemessen)
1548. Oil on wood panel.
-serious young person without personal vanity and self-assured
-inscription identifies her (20 years old)
Describe The Fall of Icarus
Pieter Bruegel the Elder. 1555-56. Oil on panel transferred to canvas.
-story of Icarus
-workers do not notice Icarus
Describe Return of the Hunters
Pieter Bruegel the Elder. 1565. Oil on wood panel.
-one of a cycle of 6 panels
-no middle ground
-hunters have backs turned and do not reveal feelings
-inn at left where worker moves a table to receive a pig that others are singeing in a fire
Describe Henry VIII
Hans Holbein the Younger. 1540. Oil on wood panel.
-age 49, as per inscription
-imitated French fashions and copied French king's beard
-puffed-sleeve coat of heavy brocade trimmed with fur
Describe Princess Elizabeth
Levina Bening Teerlinc. 1559. Oil on oak panel.
-pearled cap set back to expose famous red hair
-brocaded outer dress split to expose underskirt of cut velvet
-books display her love of learning
Describe George Clifford, Third Earl of Cumberland
Nicholas Hilliard. 1595. Watercolor on card.
-regular participant in annual tilts and festivals
-wears richly engraved and gold-inlaid suit of armor