Flashcards in Baroque Questions Deck (60):
Describe Louis XIV
Hyacinthe Rigaud. 1701. Oil on canvas.
-proud of his legs
-idealized subject's less attractive features
Gianlorenzo Bernini. 1624-33. Gilt bronze.
-twisted columns = union of OT and NT
-vine of Eucharist climbing columns of Temple of Solomon
-mark site of tomb of Saint Peter
Bernini. 1623. Marble.
-intrudes in viewer's space
-bends at waist and twists
-more mature, sinewy body
Describe Saint Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy
Bernini. 1545-52. Marble.
-vision in which angel pierced her body repeatedly with arrow, transporting her to state of indescribable pain, religious ecstasy, and sense of oneness with God.
-seem to float on stucco clouds
-angel's clinging draperies contrast with Teresa's heavy woolen robe
Describe Facade and Interior Dome of Church of San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane
-one corner cut off for fountain
-elongated central plan interior space with undulating walls
-pairs of columns support massive entablature
-coffers decrease in size near apex
Describe Piazza Navona
-popular site for festivals and celebrations
-church dominates urban space
Describe Fountain of the Four Rivers
Bernini and his shop. 1648-51. Travertine and marble.
-rocky hill seems to be suspended over an open grotto.
-four rives: Nile, Ganges, Danube, Rio de la Plata
-center soars towering ancient Roman imitation of Egyptian obelisk crowned with dove, peace and Trinity and pope's family
-dual memorial to might and reach of papacy
Describe Ceiling of Gallery, Palazzo Farnese
Carracci. 1597-1601. Fresco.
-scenes of love based on Ovid's Metamorphosis.
-celebrates wedding of Duke to the niece of pope
-primary image is The Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne, celebrating his love for Ariadne
-organized using illusionistic devices to create multiple levels of reality
Describe Landscape with the Flight into Egypt
Carracci. 1603-04. Oil on canvas.
-contemplative pastoral landscape filled with golden light (Venetian)
-trees in left foreground and right middle ground frame the scene
-collection of ancient buildings in center form stable and protective canopy for flight of family
-space gradually progresses in diagonal movements
Caravaggio. 1595-96. Oil on canvas.
-highly realistic. painted what he saw.
-parts of skin that had been exposed to sun are darker than the rest
-can be allegory of sins of lust and gluttony
Describe The Calling of Saint Matthew
Caravaggio. 1599-1600. Oil on canvas.
-meant to suggest conversion
-depicts Jesus calling Levi, tax collector, to join his apostles.
-levi sits at table counting coins for boy at left
-jesus points and levi imitates by pointing to himself
-intense light enters from unseen source and spotlights faces of men.
-Jesus's outstretched arm reminds of God giving life to Adam. Jesus calling Levi to start a new life
Caravaggio. 1603-4. Oil on canvas.
-perspective from burial pit into which Jesus's body is being lowered
-figures form large off-center triangle
-Virgin and Mary Magdalen barely intrude on scene. sturdy-legged laborer carrying Jesus and John the Evangelist as triangle's apex.
Describe Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes
Artemisia Gentileschi. 1625. Oil on canvas.
-naturalism and tenebrist effects
-Judith still holding bloody sword and hiding candle's light as maid stuffs general's head into sack
-dramatic use of light
Describe Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting
Gentileschi. 1630. Oil on canvas.
-richly dressed woman with palette and brushes.
-Iconologia's influence is revealed in woman's gold necklace with its mask pendant.
-mask imitates human face, as painting imitates nature, and gold chain symbolizes continuity and interlocking nature of painting
Guido Reni. 1613-14. Fresco.
-illusionistic mythological scenes in quadro riportato.
-Apollo, escorted by Cupid and Seasons, drives sun chariot. Flying figure of Aurora leads Apollo's horses at sharp diagonal over dramatic Venetian sky.
Describe Barberini Palace and Square
1628-36. Ink and chalk on paper.
-palace, piazza, and city
Describe The Glorification of the Papacy of Urban VIII
Pietro da Cortona. 1632-39. Fresco.
-figures weave in and out of setting in active and complex profusion
-dramatic illumination fuses ceiling into dense but unified whole
-elaborate allegory of virtues of the pope.
-below center of vault, seated at the top of a pyramid of clouds and figures personifying Time and Fates, Divine Providence gestures toward three giant bees surrounded by huge laurel wreaths (Barberini emblems) carried by Faith, Hope, and Charity.
-Immortality offers crown of stars
-around figures are scenes of Roman gods and goddesses, who demonstrate pope's wisdom and virtue by triumphing over the vices
Describe The Triumph of the Name of Jesus and the Fall of the Damned
Giovanni Battista Gaulli. 1672-85. Fresco with stucco figures.
-no sense of architectural division. cant tell if flat or has mass
-illusion of clouds and angels floating down
-subject is Last Judgment, with the elect rising joyfully toward name of God and damned plummeting through ceiling toward nave floor.
Describe Still Life with Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber
Juan Sanchez Cotan. 1602. Oil on canvas.
-irregular, curved shapes of fruits and vegetables against angular geometry of the ledge
Describe Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew
Jusepe de Ribera. 1634. Oil on canvas.
-bound Bartholomew looks heavenward as executions tests knife.
-highlights intensely aged faces with dramatic light of tenebrism and depicts aging wrinkled flesh with painful naturalism (caravaggio)
Describe Saint Serapion
Francisco de Zurbaran. 1628. Oil on canvas.
-member of Mercedarians, Spanish order founded to rescue the christian prisoners of Moors. sacrificed himself in exchange for Christian captives
-dead man's pallor, rough hands, and coarse ropes contrast with robe
-only colors are red and gold on insignia
-study of fabric and flesh
Describe Water Carrier of Seville
Diego Velazquez. 1619. Oil on canvas.
-study of surfaces and textures of ceramic pots
-display of light reacting to surfaces. glazed, matte, glass.
-water and its cultural role
Describe The Surrender at Breda
Diego Velazquez. 1634-35. Oil on canvas.
-theme of triumph and conquest
-dutch commander hands over keys of Breda to victorious spanish commander
-exchange seems gracious
-represents courtly ideal of gentlemanly conduct
-victors stand at attention. lances are upright
-defeated dutch stand out of order, pikes and banners drooping
-landscape is imaginary Netherlands
Describe Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor)
Diego Velazquez. 1656. Oil on canvas.
-King Philip and queen's reflection can be seen from mirror in back
-central focus is on Margarita, surrounded by attendants most of whom are identifiable portraits
-used minimum of underdrawing, building up forms with layers of loosely applied paint and finishing off surfaces with dashing highlights
-self-portrait standing at easel
Describe The Immaculate Conception
Bartolome Esteban Murillo. 1645-50. Oil on canvas.
Mary dressed in white and blue, hands folded in prayer, carried upward by angels
surrounded by unearthly light
stand on crescent moon = woman of the apocalypse
angels often carry palms and symbols of the Virgin like mirror, fountain, roses, and lilies.
Describe West Facade, Cathedral of Saint James
-so much decoration
-freestanding gable over roof, visually linking two towers
Describe Benedictine Monastery Church, Melk
-built on promontory overlooking Danube
-complex combines church, monastery, library, and guest quarters
-complex of buildings
-wings are joined by curving building and terrace overlooking river
-colossal pilasters and high, bulbous-domed towers emphasize verticality
-Interior is yellow and pink and oh gosh gold
Describe Rubens House
Peter Paul Rubens. 1610-15.
-large typical Flemish house
-dude its a house
Describe The Raising of the Cross
Rubens. 1610-11. Oil on canvas.
-Flemish tradition of uniting triptych by extending central action and landscape through all three panels
-center, Herculean figures strain to haul upright wooden cross
-left, followers of Jesus mourn
-right, indifferent soldiers supervise execution
Describe Henri IV Receiving the Portrait of Marie de' Medici
Rubens. 1621-25. Oil on canvas.
-Henri falls in love with Marie's portrait shown to him by Cupid and Hymen, god of marriage
-Jupiter and Juno look down from clouds
-personification of France encourages Henri to abandon war for love
-ripe colors, multiple textures, dramatic diagonals give sustained visual excitement
Describe Garden of Love
Rubens. 1630-32. Oil on canvas.
-second wife portrayed
-putti encourage lovers
Describe Charles I at the Hunt
Anthony van Dyck. 1635. Oil on canvas.
-manipulated setting to make short king appear tall
-tree branches now gracefully toward him
Describe Still Life with Flowers, Goblet, Dried Fruit, and Pretzels
Clara Peeters. 1611. Oil on panel.
-rich tableware and food gain at neutral, almost black backgrounds, to better emphasize fall of light over contrasting surface textures
-goblet and bowl contrast with simple stoneware and pewter, like delicate flowers with homey pretzels
Describe Saint Sebastian Tended by Saint Irene
Hendrick ter Brugghen. 1625. Oil on canvas.
-suffering and recovery equated to crucifixion
-sickly green flesh contrast with brilliant red and gold brocade
-saint Irene, patron saint of nurses, carefully removes one of the arrows that pierce him. Maid about to untie ropes
-dramatic lighting and tenebrism
Describe Allegory of Sight
Jan Brueghel and Rubens. 1617-18. Oil on wood panel.
-Venus and Cupid contemplate a painting
-huge globe at right symbolize extent of humanistic learning
Books, prints, ruler, compasses, etc refer to spiritual blindness, for those who look but cannot see
Describe Catharina Hooft and her Nurse
Frans Hals. 1620. Oil on canvas
-records great pride of parents in child and also records their wealth in study of fabrics, laces, and expensive toys
-depicted heartwarming delight of child who seems to acknowledge viewer as family member while nurse tries to distract her with an apple
Describe Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of Saint Adrian
Frans Hals. 1627. Oil on canvas.
-group portrait as lively social event
-based on strong underlying geometry of diagonal lines balanced by perpendiculars of table, window, banner
-black suits and hats emphasize color
Describe Self-Portrait (Judith Leyster)
1635. Oil on canvas.
-elegant dress and fine chair show her success
-man playing violin may be pun of painter with palette and brush
-portrait on easel in lighter tones and soft, loose brushwork
Describe The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp
Rembrandt. 1632. Oil on canvas.
-combined scientific and humanistic interests
-sharp diagonals. Book.
Describe Captain Frans Banning Cocq Mustering his Company
Rembrandt. 1642. Oil on canvas.
-carries idea of group portrait as drama
-company forming for parade, but added several unnecessary figures
-officers purposely strive forward
-radiant young girl carrying chicken and wearing money pouch may be pun on the kind of guns that gave the name to company. Chicken legs with claws also part of their coat of arms
-may stand as symbolic mascot of the militia company
Describe Three Crosses
Rembrandt. 1653. Dry point and etching.
-deep consideration of the melanin of life
-tried to capture moment described in Gospels when darkness covered earth and Jesus cried out
-in first state, centurion kneels in front of cross while other terrified people run from scene
-fourth state, completely reworked theme. Reduction of event to its essence
-shattered hill of Golgotha dominates foreground, but now mass of vertical lines breaks shower of light
Describe Self-Portrait (Rembrandt)
1658. Oil on canvas.
-regal pose. At ease with arms and legs and holding staff as if it were baton of command
-face and eyes seem weary
-physical tension in fingers and weariness in deep-set eyes
-one who has suffered but retains dignity
Describe View of Delft
Jan Vermeer. 1662. Oil on canvas.
-moved buildings to create ideal landscape
-stress on horizontal lines, careful placements of buildings, quiet atmosphere, and clear even light that seems to emerge from beneath low lying clouds
Describe Woman Holding a Balance
Vermeer. 1664. Oil on canvas.
-perfect equilibrium creates monumental composition and moment of supreme stillness
-woman contemplates balance in act of weighing and judging
-image of Christ is in gold aureole in last judgment
Describe The Suitor's Visit
Gerard ter Borch. 1658. Oil on canvas.
-well dressed man bows gracefully to elegant woman arrayed in white satin while another woman plays a lute
-prosperous gentleman pays call to woman of equal status, possibly courtship
Stringed instruments = harmony of souls and loving relationship
Describe Portuguese Synagogue
Emanuel de Witte. 1680. Oil on canvas.
-rectangular hall divided into one wide central aisle with narrow side aisles
-shift of viewpoint creates interesting spatial composition
-caped figure and dog provide scale for architecture and adds human interest
Describe The Jewish Cemetery
Jacob van Ruisdael. 1655-60. Oil on canvas.
-thought provoking view of silent tombs, crumbling ruins, and stormy landscape with rainbows
-concerned with spiritual meanings of landscape
-suggest allegory of transience
-melancholy mood lifted by rainbow, traditional symbol of renewal and hope
Describe Still Life with a Watch
Pieter Claesz. 1636. Oil on panel.
-organizes dishes in diagonal positions to give strong sense of space
-gives maximum contrast of textures within color scheme of white, grays, browns
-watch means human achievement in science and technology
Describe Flowers Still Life
Rachel Ruysch. 1700. Oil on canvas.
-asymmetrical floral arrangement offset by strong diagonal table.
Describe Palais de Versailles
-hall of mirrors architectural symmetry and lining glass mirrors the same size as arched windows
-mirrors reflect natural light from windows and give illusion of bigger space
Describe Apollo Attended by the Nymphs of Thetis
Francois Girardon. 1666-75. Marble.
-apollo is attended by nymphs.
-from Grotto of Thetis.
Describe Mary Magdalen with the Smoking Flame
Georges de La Tour. 1640. Oil on canvas.
-light comes from candle.
-hand and skull, symbols of mortality, establish foreground plane
-light is unifying element of painting and conveys somber mood
-Mary has put aside her rich clothing and jewels and meditates on frailty and vanity of human life
Describe The Village Piper
Antoine Le Nain. 1642. Oil on copper.
-peasant children gather around flute player
-simple homespun clothes and undefined setting turn painting into study of neutral colors and rough textures
-contrast between young and old
Describe Landscape with Saint John on Patmos
Nicolas Poussin. 1640. Oil on canvas.
-consistent perspective progression from picture plane back into distance through clearly defined grounds. marked by alternating sunlight and shade.
-surrounded by ancient ruins of Rome.
-Saint John writes book of Revelation
-Second Coming of Christ, suggested by flourishing vegetation
Describe Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba
Claude Lorrain. 1648. Oil on canvas.
-ruined building with Corinthian cornice and columns on left
-ships on the water
-one point perspective on sun
Describe Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace
Inigo Jones. 1619-22. London.
-used for court ceremonies and entertainments.
-superimposed Ionic and Composite orders
-rhythmic effect in window treatments from triangular and segmental to cornices with volute
-Interior, painting depicts birth of new nation, flanked by allegorical paintings of heroic strength and virtue overcoming vice
Describe Saint Paul's Cathedral
Christopher Wren. 1673. London.
-central plan with dome
-long nave and sanctuary
-dome has oculus and exterior sheathing of lead-covered wood
-two stages of paired Corinthian columns support carved pediment on facade
Describe Blenheim Palace
John Vanbrugh. 1705-12. England.
-imposing and impractical monument to the glory of England
-palace made national monument as well as residence of dukes
-formal gardens at each side
-enormous size and symmetrical plan
Describe Parson Capen House
-single "great room" and fireplace.
-two stories, each with great room.