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Discuss historical division of Greek art

Geometric Period (900-700BCE) - ceramic vessels decorated with geometric patterns
Orientalizing Period (700-600) - influence of Egyptian and Near Eastern Art
Archaic (600-480) - old. Contrast
Classical (Early, High, Late) - transitional, aka "Golden Age"


What developments occurred during the Orientalizing Period?

Vase paintings became built around large motifs like real/imaginary animals, abstract plant forms, and human figures


Describe the cultural achievements found during the Archaic period.

Literature - Sapphors (poet) wrote poetry that would inspire. Aesop was writing his fables
Doric and Ionic order appeared. Human sculptures. Black/red figure. Temples grew larger and more complex.
Exekias - famous black figure artist
Euphronius - famous red figure artist


What key event during the Early Classical Period resulted in the rebuilding of the monuments on the Athenian Acropolis?

Greek city-states were threatened by growing Persian Empire. They soon revolted and began a war. Athens emerged from this as leader of city-states, and then collapsed.


Compare Egyptian and Greek viewpoints regarding funerary art.

Greeks depicted figures of dead in stele in low relief emerging in everyday activity. Also, the kourous statues. Burials were marked with pottery. They mourned the survivors, rather than the dead.
Egyptians built elaborate tombs and filled the tomb with riches to make sure the dead had a comfortable afterlife


What is the primary function of metal sculpture during the Geometric period?

To create votive offerings in the simplest geometric shape, arranging them in composition of solid, open, or negative spaces


Discuss the meaning of Archaic freestanding male and female figures.

Found marking graves in sanctuaries
Korai - (kore) female. represented deities, priestesses, nymphs, mortal attendants to gods
Kouroi - (Kouros) ancestors (fertility and family continuity)


Discuss the architectural sculpture of the Parthenon in terms of subject and the original location on the building.

East pediment - Zeus on throne, with Athena at one side (missing), Helios and horse drawn carriage rising from left. Right, Selene descending in chariot. Reclining male could be Herakles with lion's skin OR Pionysos lying on panther skin.
2 seated women - Demeter and Persephone
Reclining figure - Iris
3 figures - 3 Fates
South side - frieze of motion, X-shaped, fluid action, form reduction (Lapith fighting centaur)
North side - procession of carrying cloth


Discuss the Canon of Proportions of Polykleitos

Polykleitos developed set of rules for constructing the ideal human figure.
-included system of ratios between basic unit and length of various body figures
-included guidelines of relationship of body parts to one another


How does the function of Hellenistic sculpture differ from earlier periods?

Hellenistic sculpture sought to represent the specific and turned increasingly to everyday events.
-appeal to senses through surface treatments and emotions through drama
Earlier Greek artists sought to capture ideal and focused on the heroic


Discuss the style of Kouros and Kore statues found in Archaic Greek sculpture. How are these figures similar to Egyptian figures?

Pose and proportion are similar. Clenched fists, striding left foot, rigidly upright body, and similar athletic quality


Explain the distinction between realism and naturalism

Realism is the portrayal of real people, in realistic places, with “real” lives It depicts live with an honesty, and to show things as they were. It focused on the commonplace and trivial aspects of life. On the other hand, naturalism portrays characters in situations where they have no control. The characters are very violent and animalistic and the moods they exude are vivid.


Discuss how the Temple of Zeus at Perganon differs from Classical temple types.

Figures in frieze break architectural boundaries and invade spectators' space
-theatrical and complex interaction of space and form
classical - sought balanced restraint


Discuss the Parthenon. How was it different from the Erechtheum.

The function of the Parthenon was to be a visual expression of Athenian values and a civic pride that would glorify the city. The cella faced east. It housed one goddess and was built on a 4:9 ratio. It had a slightly arched base and entablature. There was a subtle swelling of the columns and a narrowing space between corner columns as well. The Erechtheum was asymmetrical, housed many different shrines, and conformed to the shape of the slope.


Trace evolution of male nude figure from Archaic to Late Classical period.

In the Archaic Period, there were the Kouros, who were stiff, athletic, and Egyptian-like statues. In the Early Classical Period, there was the Spear Bearer. It was made with Polykleitos’ Canon. It is perfectly balanced with its weight on the engaged, right leg. It also shows tension and relaxation.
In the High Classical Period, there was the relief entitled Lapith Fighting a Centaur. It was a moment of total equilibrium frozen in time. Its defining features were the noticeable hard muscles and soft flesh.
In the Late Classical Period, there was Hermes and the Infant Dionysos. It showed intimacy and affection. It was a more youthful body, off-balanced, and made with a S-curve pose.


Compare the Peplos Kore with the Aphrodite of Knidos

Peplos Kore was motionless, had a vertical pose, and a more rounded and feminine figure. It was made with encaustic painting and it shows a sense of soft flesh covering the noticeable, rigid bone structure. Aphrodite of Knidos was the first full nude and showed athletic strength. She was modest in only her actions. This sculpture emphasized the nakedness of Aphrodite.


Compare relief decoration of Nike Adjusting her Sandal with Nike of Samothrace

Nike Adjusting her Sandal bends forward gracefully. The wings balance this pose. The weighty pleats of her robe make it appear delicate and light, as well as cling to her body. Nike of Samothrace has a dramatic effect. Its forward momentum of the body is balanced by the powerful backward thrust of her enormous wings. It showed large, open movements. There was also a strong contrast of light and dark, as well as contrasting textures of her feathers, fabric, and skin.


Discus Thrower (date, material only)

Original bronze (450bce) Marble


Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi

530BCE. Built on rugged mountain.
Said that Zeus released 2 eagles and they met at this point.
Site of Pythian Games.


Describe Centuar

Late 10th c. BCE, ceramic,
-geometric forms in painted decoration
-redution of human and animal body parts to geometric solids


Describe Funerary Vase

Krater, 750-700BCE, ceramic, detailed record of funerary rituals, arms / hands placed on head to represent grief/anguish


When was the Proto-Geometric form?

1050-900 BCE


When was the Geometric Period?

900-700 BCE


When was the Orientalizing Period?

700-600 BCE


When was the Archaic Period?

600-480 BCE


When was the Early Classical Period?

480-450 BCE


When was the High Classical Period?

450-400 BCE


When was the Late Classical Period?

400-323 BCE


When was the Hellenistic Period?

323-31 BCE


Describe Man and Centuar

750BCE, bronze
Man and centaur confront each other. Man has stabbed centaur.
Reduced body parts to geometric shapes


Describe Pitcher

Olpe, 600BCE, ceramic
Striding silhouetted creatures in horizontal bands against light background with stylized rosettes
-black figure pottery


Describe in antis plan

Two columns between pillars at entrance


Describe amphiprostyle plan

Row of columns at front and back, forming porticoes at front and back.


Describe peripteral plan

Peristyle. Includes 3 columns in antis.
-Single colonnade inside cella. Or porticoed cella on 3 sides
-Contains adyton at the back. Or it could have an enclosed porch instead (opithodomos)
-Built on stereobate


Describe Temple of Hera I

550-540 BCE
Peristyle, doric columns
-Uneven number of columns


Describe Gorgon Medusa

From west pediment of Temple of Artemis, 600-580BCE, Limestone
Used as both menacing and protective symbol of temple.
Flanking Medusa is Pegasus and Chrysaor (children)


What is a defining feature of Archaic temple sculpture?

Scale and awkward positioning of figures to fit triangular pediment


Describe Treasury of the Siphnians / Battle Between Gods and Giants

Located at Sanctuary of Apollo
-Caryatids instead of columns
-Ionic order
-Frieze shows scene from legendary battle between Gods and Giants
-For 3D, sculptor placed some figures behind others,
-All figures were made the same height with feet on same groundline


Describe East Pediment of Temple of Aphaia, Aegina

-Early military expedition against Troy led by Herakles
-Fallen warriors fill angles at both ends of base, while others crouch and lunge
-Rise in height, reaching toward image of Athena under peak of roof


Describe Dying Warrior

Part of East Pediment of Temple of Aphaia
-Warrior struggles to stand while pulling arrow from his side.
-Soldier's uptilted, twisted form turning in space captures agony and vulnerability
-Subtle modeling conveys softness of human flesh, which is contrasted with hard, metallic geometry of shield, helmet, and arrow.


Describe Standing Youth (Kouros)

600BCE, marble
-The one that's similar to the Egyptian ones
-Notable, athletic quality
-Ridges and grooves that form geometric pattern
-Head is ovoid, with heavy features and schematized hair evenly knotted and tied back
-Eyes are large and wide open, mouth forms Archaic smile.
-Nude > removes statue from specific time, place, or social class


Describe Anavysos Kouros

530BCE, Athens, Marble
-Has greater anatomical accuracy, suggests heroic strength


Describe Berlin Kore

570-560BCE, Marble
-Also severe and rigid
-erect, immobile pose, and full-bodied figure suggest goddess
-Holds pomegranate in right hand, symbol of Persephone


Describe Peplos Kore

530BCE, Marble, Athens
-wears peplos (draped rectangular cloth, pinned, looks like blouse)
-Motionless, but more rounded and feminine.
-Bare arms and head convey sense of soft flesh covering real bone structure


Describe Kore

520BCE, Marble
-Rich drapery and amount of paint remaining is impressive
-Reflects trend toward increasingly anatomically correct statues
-Clothing is very drape-like
-Elaborate hair and jewelry


Describe Dionysos with Maendas

540BCE, Amasis Painter, Ceramic
-black figure on amphora
-bands of decoration above and below central scene
-Two maenads, arms arorund one another, skip forward to present offerings of long-eared rabbit and small deer.
-Dionysos holds kantharos.
-Appears joyful, rather than one of reverence or fear.
-Amasis painter favored strong shapes and pattners, generally disregarded conventions for making figures appear to occupy real space, and paid attention to fine detail.


Describe Achilles and Ajax Playing a Game

540BCE, Ceramic, Exekias
-Black figure on amphora
-Two men play board game
-Achilles is wearing helmet and winning
-Matches painting to vase. Triangular shape formed by men rises to mouth of jar whle handles continue the line of their shields.


Describe The Suicide of Ajax

540BCE, Ceramic, Exekias
Black figure on amphora
-Although Ajax was second, fallen Achilles' armor was given to Odysseys
-Embarrassed, so he sets aside armor, and plants sword upright.
-Tree and shield balance the figure. In-curving lines echo the swelling shape of amphora.


Describe Death of Sarpedon

515BCE, Ceramic, Euphronios
-Red figure on calyx krater
-Winged figures carry dead warrior, while Hermes watches over. (guide to underworld)
-perfectly balanced composition of verticals
-bands of decoration echo long horizontal of dead's body
-lance-bearers on each side and Hermes counterbalance horizontal elements.
-created sense of real space by foreshortening body forms


Who was a famous potter?



Describe Spear Bearer (Achilles)

450-440BCE, Marble, Polykleitos
-perfectly balanced with whole weight of upper body supported over straight, right leg
-left leg is bent, suggesting movement.
-pattern of relaxation and tense is reversed in the arms.


Describe Apollo with Battling Laptihs and Centaurs

470-460BCE, Marble
-From West Pediment of the Temple of Zeus
-Apollo stands at center, calming scene with raised arm.
-twisted, triangular pediment thing


Describe Athena, Herakles, and Atlas

460BCE, Marble, from temple of Zeus
-Atlas steals apples for Herakles while he holds the world, and Athena helps him hold it.
-balanced erect, frontal view of Athena.
-high relief, reflect strong realism


Describe Kritian Boy

480BCE, Marble
-one of earliest and finest freestanding sculptures exhibiting more natural, lifelike qualities
-easy pose. Weight rests on left leg, and right leg slightly bends.
-solemn expression (no archaic smile)


Describe A Bronze Foundry

490-480BCE, ceramic, Foundry Painter
-Red figure on kylix
-Displays foundry
-circle at the bottom stands for groundline


Describe Charioteer

470BCE, Bronze, copper, silver, onyx
-From Sanctuary of Apollo
-Commemorates victory of a driver in the Pythian Games
-rather intimidating expression
-very realistic, from robe to feet.


Describe Warrior A

460-450BCE, BRonze
-balance between idealized anatomical forms and naturalisitc details.
-muscular youthfulness but mature face


Describe Artemis Slaying Actaeon

470BCE, Ceramic, Old Classical, Pan Painter
-Red figure on bell krater
-Acataeon was being punished by Artemis for boasting he was a better hunter.
-Each figure forms roughly triangular shape that form to flaring shape of vessel


Describe the Erechtheion

421-406BCE, Athens
-asymmetrical plan on several levels reflects building's multiple functions (shrines)
-Had porches on all sides except west.
-porch of maidens (north) with caryatids and Ionic order. caryatids balanced and weight distributed unevenly


Describe Women at a Fountain House

520-510BCE, ceramic, Priam Painter
-Black figure on hydria
-Depicts scene of women gathering water. (only time they were allowed outside)
-Divided into 3 vertical sections by Doric columns
-Building designed like stoa. Open on one side, but having spigots on 3 walls
-circular palmettes (fan shaped, petal designs) suggest rich and colorful civic center


Describe Grave Stele of Hegeso

410-400BCE, Marble
-beautifully dressed women sitting. She selects jewels from box presented by maid.
-Composition is gently inward turning, in gaze and gestures and vertical fall of drapery and curve of chair. (seems to enclose and frame figures)
-face and bodies are idealized, but individuality in costume and hairstyle.


Describe Woman and Maid

450-440BCE, ceramic
-White ground on lekythos
-Shows young servant girl carrying stool for small chest of valuables to well dressed, regal woman.
-scene contains no signs of grief, but hay un quiet sadness.


Name a city that follows orthogonal plan

Miletos - planned by Hippodamos Miletos


Describe Hermes and the Infant Dionysos

4thc. BCE, marble, Praxiteles or students
-smaller, youthful body, S-curve pose
-plays with light to contrast between crumpled draperies/hair with smooth flesh
-gives off softer feeling


Describe Aphrodite of Knidos

350BCE, marble, Praxiteles
-First full nude.
-Venus is preparing to bathe. Her acts of modesty only emphasize her nudity.


Describe Panel from Amazon Frieze

Mid4thc. BCE, marble, Skopas
-he favored very active, dramatic poses over balanced, harmonious ones.
-noted for emotions and gestures


Describe The Man Scraping Himself

350-325BCE, marble, Lysippos
-chose nude male but did not portray it in athletics.
-weight is more evenly distributed. breaks into surrounding space.


Describe Earrings

Hollow cast


Describe Stag Hunt

300BCE, mosaic, Gnosis
-Plantlife frames this scene.
-Overlifesize figures are accurately drawn and modeled in light and shade.
-made with carefully selected pebbles


Describe A Vase Painter and Assistants Crowned by Athena and Victories

Red figure on hydria
-Shows women working (designing) but males are there wearing wreaths


Describe Gallic Chieftain Killing His Wife and Himself

220BCE, marble
-Sought to arouse admiration and pity
-still supports dead wife as he kills himself


Describe Dying Gallic Trumpeter



Describe Athena Attacking the Giants

175-150BCE, marble
From frieze of east front of altar from Pergamon
-Athena grabs hair of male monster and forces him to his knees
-Ge (Earth goddess) pleads for her son's life.
-Nike ruses to help to crown her with a wreath


Describe Veiled and Masked Dancer

Late 3rd or 2nd c. BCE, bronze
-twists sensually under gauzy, layered fabric in complex spiral movement


Describe Old Woman

1st c. CE, marble
-Old peasant woman makes way to agora with 3 chickens and basket of vegetables
-clothing appears to be of elegant design and fine fabric
-raggedy appearance, but sense that things used to be beautiful


Describe Aphrodite of Melos

150-100BCE, marble
-heavier proportions of High Classical, but has twisting stance and strong projection of knee like in the Hellenistic
-drapery of lower part has rich, 3D dimensional quality.
-cloth looks like about to slip off.