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Discuss historical division of Greek art

Geometric Period (900-700BCE) - ceramic vessels decorated with geometric patterns
Orientalizing Period (700-600) - influence of Egyptian and Near Eastern Art
Archaic (600-480) - old. Contrast
Classical (Early, High, Late) - transitional, aka "Golden Age"


What developments occurred during the Orientalizing Period?

Vase paintings became built around large motifs like real/imaginary animals, abstract plant forms, and human figures


Describe the cultural achievements found during the Archaic period.

Literature - Sapphors (poet) wrote poetry that would inspire. Aesop was writing his fables
Doric and Ionic order appeared. Human sculptures. Black/red figure. Temples grew larger and more complex.
Exekias - famous black figure artist
Euphronius - famous red figure artist


What key event during the Early Classical Period resulted in the rebuilding of the monuments on the Athenian Acropolis?

Greek city-states were threatened by growing Persian Empire. They soon revolted and began a war. Athens emerged from this as leader of city-states, and then collapsed.


Compare Egyptian and Greek viewpoints regarding funerary art.

Greeks depicted figures of dead in stele in low relief emerging in everyday activity. Also, the kourous statues. Burials were marked with pottery. They mourned the survivors, rather than the dead.
Egyptians built elaborate tombs and filled the tomb with riches to make sure the dead had a comfortable afterlife


What is the primary function of metal sculpture during the Geometric period?

To create votive offerings in the simplest geometric shape, arranging them in composition of solid, open, or negative spaces


Discuss the meaning of Archaic freestanding male and female figures.

Found marking graves in sanctuaries
Korai - (kore) female. represented deities, priestesses, nymphs, mortal attendants to gods
Kouroi - (Kouros) ancestors (fertility and family continuity)


Discuss the architectural sculpture of the Parthenon in terms of subject and the original location on the building.

East pediment - Zeus on throne, with Athena at one side (missing), Helios and horse drawn carriage rising from left. Right, Selene descending in chariot. Reclining male could be Herakles with lion's skin OR Pionysos lying on panther skin.
2 seated women - Demeter and Persephone
Reclining figure - Iris
3 figures - 3 Fates
South side - frieze of motion, X-shaped, fluid action, form reduction (Lapith fighting centaur)
North side - procession of carrying cloth


Discuss the Canon of Proportions of Polykleitos

Polykleitos developed set of rules for constructing the ideal human figure.
-included system of ratios between basic unit and length of various body figures
-included guidelines of relationship of body parts to one another


How does the function of Hellenistic sculpture differ from earlier periods?

Hellenistic sculpture sought to represent the specific and turned increasingly to everyday events.
-appeal to senses through surface treatments and emotions through drama
Earlier Greek artists sought to capture ideal and focused on the heroic


Discuss the style of Kouros and Kore statues found in Archaic Greek sculpture. How are these figures similar to Egyptian figures?

Pose and proportion are similar. Clenched fists, striding left foot, rigidly upright body, and similar athletic quality


Explain the distinction between realism and naturalism

Realism is the portrayal of real people, in realistic places, with “real” lives It depicts live with an honesty, and to show things as they were. It focused on the commonplace and trivial aspects of life. On the other hand, naturalism portrays characters in situations where they have no control. The characters are very violent and animalistic and the moods they exude are vivid.


Discuss how the Temple of Zeus at Perganon differs from Classical temple types.

Figures in frieze break architectural boundaries and invade spectators' space
-theatrical and complex interaction of space and form
classical - sought balanced restraint


Discuss the Parthenon. How was it different from the Erechtheum.

The function of the Parthenon was to be a visual expression of Athenian values and a civic pride that would glorify the city. The cella faced east. It housed one goddess and was built on a 4:9 ratio. It had a slightly arched base and entablature. There was a subtle swelling of the columns and a narrowing space between corner columns as well. The Erechtheum was asymmetrical, housed many different shrines, and conformed to the shape of the slope.


Trace evolution of male nude figure from Archaic to Late Classical period.

In the Archaic Period, there were the Kouros, who were stiff, athletic, and Egyptian-like statues. In the Early Classical Period, there was the Spear Bearer. It was made with Polykleitos’ Canon. It is perfectly balanced with its weight on the engaged, right leg. It also shows tension and relaxation.
In the High Classical Period, there was the relief entitled Lapith Fighting a Centaur. It was a moment of total equilibrium frozen in time. Its defining features were the noticeable hard muscles and soft flesh.
In the Late Classical Period, there was Hermes and the Infant Dionysos. It showed intimacy and affection. It was a more youthful body, off-balanced, and made with a S-curve pose.


Compare the Peplos Kore with the Aphrodite of Knidos

Peplos Kore was motionless, had a vertical pose, and a more rounded and feminine figure. It was made with encaustic painting and it shows a sense of soft flesh covering the noticeable, rigid bone structure. Aphrodite of Knidos was the first full nude and showed athletic strength. She was modest in only her actions. This sculpture emphasized the nakedness of Aphrodite.


Compare relief decoration of Nike Adjusting her Sandal with Nike of Samothrace

Nike Adjusting her Sandal bends forward gracefully. The wings balance this pose. The weighty pleats of her robe make it appear delicate and light, as well as cling to her body. Nike of Samothrace has a dramatic effect. Its forward momentum of the body is balanced by the powerful backward thrust of her enormous wings. It showed large, open movements. There was also a strong contrast of light and dark, as well as contrasting textures of her feathers, fabric, and skin.


Discus Thrower (date, material only)

Original bronze (450bce) Marble


Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi

530BCE. Built on rugged mountain.
Said that Zeus released 2 eagles and they met at this point.
Site of Pythian Games.


Describe Centuar

Late 10th c. BCE, ceramic,
-geometric forms in painted decoration
-redution of human and animal body parts to geometric solids


Describe Funerary Vase

Krater, 750-700BCE, ceramic, detailed record of funerary rituals, arms / hands placed on head to represent grief/anguish


When was the Proto-Geometric form?

1050-900 BCE


When was the Geometric Period?

900-700 BCE


When was the Orientalizing Period?

700-600 BCE


When was the Archaic Period?

600-480 BCE


When was the Early Classical Period?

480-450 BCE


When was the High Classical Period?

450-400 BCE


When was the Late Classical Period?

400-323 BCE


When was the Hellenistic Period?

323-31 BCE


Describe Man and Centuar

750BCE, bronze
Man and centaur confront each other. Man has stabbed centaur.
Reduced body parts to geometric shapes