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Flashcards in Early Medieval Questions Deck (31):

Describe chi rho iota page

Late 8th-early 9th, oxgall inks and pigments on vellum, Scotland
-book of kells, gospel book
4 scribes and 3 major illuminators


Describe eagle brooch

6th c. Gilt, bronze, crystal, garnets, other gems, Spain
-created by Visigoths
-bird in flight with outspread wings and tail, profile head with curved beak, and large round eye
-circle that represents cabochon
-ancient sun symbol, then symbol of imperial Rome, then John


Describe Cross

Late 7th-early 9thc. gilded silver, wood, jewels, glass, cameos, gold-glass medallion, Italy
-made by Lombards
-Byzantine form - equal arms widening at ends joined by central disc with relief figure of Christ enthroned in jeweled mandorla, indicating emanating divine light
-intended to glorify God with glowing color


Describe Gummersmark Brooch

6th c. silver gilt, Denmark
-Made by Norse (Scandinavian), animal design
-large pin consisting of large, rectangular panel and medallionlike plate covering safety pin's catch connected by arched bow
-surface has human, animal, and geometric forms
-eye and beak motif frames rectangular panel


What are certain underlying principles of the animal style?

-generally symmetrical
-animals depicted in entirely profile or from above
-ribs and spinal columns exposed as if x-rayed
-hip and shoulder joints are pear-shaped
-tongues and jaws extend and curl
-legs end in large claws


Describe Purse Cover

First half of 7th c. cloisonne plaques of gold, garnet, and checked millefiore glass, England
-from Sutton Hoo Burial Ship (Anglo-Saxon)
-decorated polygons with purely geometric patterns flank central plaque of four animals with long interlacing legs and jaws
-motif of human being flanked by pair of animals from Near Eastern and Roman
-hawks with rectangular eyebrows and curving beaks, twisted wings, and square tails are Norse
-Interlacing four-legged, long-jawed animals are Germanic
-use of bright color, red and gold, reflect Eastern European
-the whole mix displays Hiberno-Saxon style


Describe Page with Man

Second half of 7th c. ink and tempera on parchment, Scotland
-from Gospel Book of Durrow
-colorful checkered pattern resembling millefiore glass inlays make up rectangular, armless body
-hair framing head follows tonsure (ceremonial hairstyle of monks)
-figure floats with dangling feet on neutral backgrounds


Describe Cats and Mice with Host

Late 8th-early 9th c. (Ex. 1)
-two cats pounce on pair of mice nibbling Eucharist wafer, and two more mice torment cats
-cats (good) mouse (evil)
-may also remark upon problem of keeping monks' food safe from rodents


Describe South Cross. Ahenny

8th c. stone, Ireland
-Irish high cross, circle encloses as halo or a glory (ring of heavenly light) or as practical support for arms
-large bosses resemble jewels similarly placed on metal cross


Describe Mozarabic style

Christian artists adapting many features of Islamic art


Describe Commentary on the Apocalypse by Beatus and Commentary on Daniel by Jerome

July 27, 970. tempera on parchment, Emeterius (monk) and Senior (artist), Spain
-5 story tower of the Tabara monastery and two story scriptorium attached to it
-brightly glazed tiles in geometric patterns and horseshoe-arched openings are common feature of Islamic architecture


Describe Battle of the Bird and the Serpent, same book

July 6, 975. tempera on parchment
-Ende "painter and servant of God"
-peacock grasps red and orange snake between beak. or Christ covers itself with mud to trick Satan.
-allegory to convey ideals in combinations of recognizable images, accessible to people of any education level


Describe Palace Chapel of Charlemagne

792-805, Germany
-functions as private chapel, church of his imperial court, place for precious relics, and imperial mausoleum.
-large, central plan similar to San Vitale, reinterpreted in distinctive Carolingian style
-westwork is combined narthex and chapel joined by tall stair towers
-second level, throne room opened onto chapel rotunda allowing emperor to attend Mass from private room
-originally designed to answer required protection and display, westwork became symbolic as outward and very visible sign of imperial building
-At Aachen, core of chapel is octagon surrounded by ambulatory and gallery in alternating square and triangular bays of outer wall.
-central octagon rises to clerestory above gallery level and ends in 8 curving triangular segments that form octagonal dome
-sharply defined spaces vreated by flat walls and angled piers
-tall arched openings and bronze grills at floor level create fictive wall that enhances clarity and geometric quality of design


Describe Abbey Church of Saint Riquier, Monastry of Centula

799, France, built by Angilbert
-illustrates Carolingian reinterpretation of Early Christian basilica
-destroyed by Viking raids
-three kinds of churches
-small, barnlike chapel dedicated to St. Benedict (simple)
-basilica with rotunda ringed with chapels dedicated to Virgin Mary and 12 Apostles
-principal chuch dedicated to St. Riquier displays Carolingian variation of basilica plan
-nave has side aisles and clerestory windows.
-westwork served almost as separate church. main altar used for important church services
-its many towers soared upward from cylindrical bases through 3 arcaded levels to cross-topped spines. served as practical function as bells towers and played symbolic role, designating important building.


Describe the Saint Gall Plan

817, original in red ink on parchment, Switzerland
-basically had everything necessary for life
-two apses at east and west end of nave


Describe Page with Mark the Evangelist, Godescalc

781-83. ink, gold, and colors on vellum, Paris
-from Godescalc (scribe's name) Gospel Lectionary, produced at Charlemagne's court
-commissioned by Charle and wife to commemorate baptism of sons in Rome
-style of illustrations suggest artists were familiar with author portraits of Rome
-Mark is writing at lectern tilted up to display work.
-appears to be listening to lion
-artist models elements to suggest 3D space despite flat, banded background
-posture and sandals contribute to naturalistic, but illusion is broken by impossible position of left knee and reverse perspective of furniture


Describe Page with Saint Matthew the Evangelist

Early 9thc.
-from Coronation gospels (gospels of charlemagne)
-Carolingian painters seem to have rediscovered Roman realistic painting.
-figure represented in brilliant light and shade and seated in freely depicted naturalistic landscape
-frame enhances classical effect of view through window


Describe Page with Matthew the Evangelist, Ebbo Gospels

Second quarter of 9thc. ink, gold, and colors on vellum, France.
-from ebbo gospels
-portrait with frenetic intensity that turns face, drapery, and landscape into swirling expressive colored lines.
-appears to hover over landscape
-attention is focused more on spiritual excitement than physical appearance
-gold accompanies hair, robe, furniture, landscape


Describe Page with Psalm 23

Second quarter of 9thc. ink on vellum or parchment, Holland.
-from Utrecht Psalter
-words are literally drawn out
-"The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want"


Describe Crucifixion with Angels and Mourning Figures

870-80. gold, pearls, sapphires, garnets, and emeralds.
-from the Lindau Gospels from monastic workshop
-made of gold with figures in repousse surrounded by heavily jeweled frames
-gems meant to recall jeweled walls of Jerusalem
-raised gems allowed light to shine from beneath
-figures above head represent sun and moon
-expressive poses of mourners reflect style of Utrecht Psalter
-Jesus is rounded, naturalistic style suggesting influence of classical sculpture


Describe Queen's Ship + detail

815-20, wood, Norway
-75 foot long ship
-burial ship. once contained riches
-bands of interlaced animals in low relief run along ship's bow and stern.
-"gripping beasts" - grotesque catlike creatures with bulging eyes, short muzzles, snarling mouths, and large teeth


Describe Royal Rune Stones

960-985, granite


Describe Urnes Church Portal

11thc. Norway
-carved with interlace of serpentine creatures snapping at each other
-satin-smooth carving of rounded surfaces, contrast of thick and thin elements, organization of interlace into harmoniously balanced patterns...have aesthetic elegance and technically control rather than wild disarray of earlier carvings


Describe Stave Church

1125-50. Norway
-stave church because of four huge timbers (staves) that form structural core
-rounded apse covered with timber tower attached to choir
-steep-roofed gallery rings building
-on all gables are crosses and dragons to protect church and people from trolls and demons


Describe timber architecture

Two forms
1. stacked horizontal logs, notched at ends, to form rectangular building
2. stood wood on end to form palisade or vertical plank wall, with timbers set directly in the ground or into sill
wattle and daub - woven branches covered with mud or other substances


Describe Otto I Presenting Magdeburg Cathedral to Christ

962-68. Ivory.
-one of 17 series called Magdeburg Ivories
-represents unity of church and state
-Saint Maurice wraps arms protectively around Otto, who presents model of cathedral to Christ and Saint Peter
-Hieratic scale makes emperor smallest, and saints and angels to be taller, but still smaller than Christ
-held cathedral is basilica with clerestory and rounded apse...like those of Rome


Describe Church of Saint Cyriakus

961. Germany
-basilica with westwork
-two towers and apse built over crypt
-"doubled ended" look typical of Ottonian churches
-nuns entered from side doors
-interior has three levels: nave, gallery, clerestory
-alternation of columns and rectangular piers creates rhythmic effect surmounted by three windows in clerestory


Describe Gero Crucifix

970. painted and gilded wood, Germany.
-Archbishop Gero of Cologne commissioned sculpture for his cathedral
-focuses on suffering.
-shown as tortured martyr
-body sags on cross and head falls forward, eyes closed
-straight, linear fall of drapery heightens impact of drawn face, and sagging body


Describe Doors of Bishop Bernward

1015, bronze, Germany
-made for Abbey Church of Saint Michael
-left door is Old, right is New. Both share common theme with different depictions


Describe Page with Otto III Enthroned

996. ink, gold, and colors on velum.
-from Liuthar Gospels (aachen gospels) made for Otto III
-dedication page is imperial propoganda establishing divine underpinning of Otto's authority.
-Otto shown enthroned in heaven in mandorla and holds orb with cross and wears crown.
-on bottom, two warriors face two bishops, symbolizing union of secular and religious power under emperor


Describe Page with Christ Washing the Feet of his Disciples

1000. ink, gold, colors on vellum
-From Aachen Gospels of Otto III
-towering Jesus extending elongated arm and hand in blessing toward apostle
-Peter reaches similarly back
-both have wide eyed stares
-light behind Jesus is gold, set off by building suggesting Heavenly Jerusalem
-conveys sense of spirituality and contained but deeply felt emotion