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Flashcards in Aegean Questions Deck (27):
1

Describe major sites where Aegean art has been discovered.

Cycladic - in Cyclades
Minoan - Thera and Crete
Helladic - Mycenean and mainland

2

What earlier culture influenced the chronology established on Crete?

Minoan culture was greatly influenced by the Greeks, as proved by the discovery of the script called Linear B which was written in an early form of Greek. The Minoans also traded with Greece, Egypt, The Near East, and Antolia which may have caused cultural diffusion within Minoan society.

3

How does the legend of the Minotaur relate to Minoan art and architecture?

Many depicions of bulls in rhyton/paintings. Also, a labryminth at Knossos said to house the mythical Minotaur.
Also, "Bull Leaping" in Minoan art

4

What types of objects are found in Mycenaean art that possibly prove that this culture was warlike and aggressive?

Mycenaeans built citadels in order to protect the palaces of their rulers. The Lion Gate contains two beast figures (possibly lions) which are shown supporting and defending what lies beyond the gate. The commanding image of the death masks found in Mycenae graves depict the faces of a heroes. Also, the warrior vase shows uniform soldiers GOING KILLING HA.

5

Describe the style and function of the Cycladic figurines

Cycladic figurines were originally found on graves. They were shaped with obsidian, scrapers, and chisels to form pared-down, and elegant rendering of body. They had simple contour, titled-back, folded arms, down-pointed toes, simple, and violin-like shapes. Their position suggests death or sleep. There is no detail, only articulation at hips, knees, and ankles.

6

Discuss the figural style found in Minoan paintings? Are there any similarities to Egyptian art? What are the most recurrent themes found in Minoan art? How does design of the Palace of Knossos on Crete suggest that the Minoans were a peaceful and nonviolent culture?

Minoan and Egyptian art are similar because they both use similar, bright colors (red, yellow, black, white, green, blue) and they also outlined their figures with unshaded areas of pure color. The “Woman with Snakes” suggests a commanding them. The design of the Palace of Knossos suggests that they were peaceful because the Palace was unprotected. There were no walls surrounding the perimeter. Also, it is centered around an open courtyard rather than an axial plan. Cities with axial plans tend to have war parades or marches.

7

Describe the various styles and shapes of Minoan pottery. How does Minoan pottery assist us in understanding the art and life of the people who lived on Crete during this period?

Kamares ware jugs were thin walled, graceful, stylized, and had painted decoration. They also had a globular body and a beaked pouring spout. In the Harverster’s vase, there is a scene of 27 men. The expression of this scene is very free, marching, and full of vibrant energy.

8

Compare Snake Goddess from Knossos and Two Women with a Child from Mycenae

The group of Two Women with a Child was crafted from fine observation of natural forms. It is natural, organic, and intimate and captures a moment in time. The Goddess with snakes however is far more stylized, with a variety of colors and abstract textures and patterns. The woman is very symmetrical and rigid in form and more severe than the Women With a Child.

9

Describe techniques of Aegean metalwork

Lost-wax casting, inly, filigree, repousse, niello, and gilding. Repousse is hammered relief forms from the back of thin sheets of gold. Niello is a mental decoration by rubbing powdered nigellum into fine lines, and heating it so that it will fuse with the metal. Gilding is the applying of gold to an object of another material.

10

Discuss different techniques used on pottery

Kamares ware – globular body and beaked pouring spout that was made with a potter’s wheel. Then, there were stone rhytons carved from steatite. There was the octopus flask that had spherical shape and a stoppered bottle. The Golden Lion’s Head Rhyton was made of gold, and was made in a representative shape instead of a geometrical one. The Krater, which was a water and wine bowl, could be highly stylized.

11

Compare Palace of Knossos and Citadel of Mycenae

The Palace of Knossos was unprotected, centered around a public courtyard, made of rubble and mudbricks and dressed stone, had interior elements made of wood, and had multi-storied, flat-roofed, columns to maximize light and air and define access and circulation patterns. The Citadel of Mycenae had was walled and had a gate. It was built by an axial plan, had drywall masonry (cyclopean), and had a megaron. Also, the rulers resided at the highest point.

12

Compare Bull's Head Rhyton and Warrior Vase

The Bull’s Head Rhyton had lightly engraved lines filled with powder. The bull was rendered with intensity, and it was made of painted rock crystal and had red jasper for eyes. It was used for liquid pouring in rituals. The Warrior Vase was used for mixing water and wine, as well as used in feasts and as grave markers. It depicts soldiers going to war. There is also a very serious, rhythmitic feel. From the Bull’s Head Rhyton, one can see that Knossos was a religious and artistic culture. They detailed the hairs of the bull, and they were very vibrant and intense in their color and content. From the Warrior Vase, one can tell that Mycenae was war-like. The vase portrays a scene of the beginning of a war.

13

Describe Seated Harp Player

2700-2500BCE, Marble
-fully developed sculpture in the round
-figure reduced to geometric essentials

14

Describe Kamares Ware Jug

2000-1900BCE (Old Palace)
globular body, beaked pouring spout
-decorated with earth colored pigments on black body
-rounded contours complemented by bold, curving forms from plant life

15

Describe Pendant of Gold Bees

1700-1550BCE (Old Palace), Gold
-Pair of bees arched around honeycomb.
-simplified geometric patterns and shapes convey insects' actual appearance

16

When was the Old Palace Period?

1900-1700 BCE

17

When was the New Palace Period?

1700-1450 BCE

18

Describe Young Girl Gathering Saffron Crocus Flowers

1630BCE, painting
-wears colorful Minoan flounced skirt with short-sleeved, open-breasted bodice, large earrings, bracelets
-shaved head, fringe of hair of a child

19

Describe Landscape (Spring Fresco)

First pure landscape painting
-unifies rhythmic flow of undulating landscape.
-stylized pattern imposes on natural forms.
-captures zestful joy of life with bright colors

20

Describe Bull Leaping

Late Minoan 1550-1450BCE, painting
-flying gallop pose
-woman is prepared to catch man in midst of leap. Woman at left is preparing to leap
-overlapping ovals (chariot wheel motif) frame action

21

Describe qualities of Woman with Snakes

1700-1550BCE, Faience

22

Describe qualities of Harvester Vase

1650-1450BCE, Steatite

23

Describe qualities of Bull's Head Rhyton

1550-1450 BCE, Steatite with shell, etc.

24

Describe Octopus Flask

1500-1450BCE (New Palace), ceramic
-pottery skin seems to dissolve.
-captured grace and energy of natural forms while presenting them in stylized harmony with vessel's spherical shape
-marine style

25

Describe Vapheio Cup

1650-1450 BCE, Gold
-made in repousse
-handles attached with rivets, and cup was later lined with thin gold
-men are trying to capture bulls in varios ways. Ropes a bull's hind leg.

26

Describe Mask of Agamemnon

1600-1550 BCE, Gold
-gallant
-could have been manipulated

27

Describe Warrior Vase

1300-1100BCE, ceramic
-Woman bids farewell to helmeted men marching off with lances and large shields.
-regular rhythm of marching.
-only emotion is woman's raised arm to her head (grief)