Early Christian / Byzantine Vocab Flashcards Preview

AP Art History > Early Christian / Byzantine Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Early Christian / Byzantine Vocab Deck (100):
1

Catacombs

a subterranean burial ground consisting of tunnels on different levels, having niches for urns and sarcophagi and incorporating cubiculi

2

Cathedra

chair or throne of the bishop

3

Iconography

imaging representing a sacred figures and believed to deliver messages to god

4

Necropolis

“city of the dead”; burial area

5

Personification

attribution of human characteristics in inanimate objects

6

Sarcophagus

stone coffin decorated with relief

7

Syncretism

in religion or philosophy, the union of different ideas or principles

8

Cherub/Cherubim

in christian art, a round, winged boy (cupid)

9

Codex

a book or group of manuscript pages (folios) bound together

10

Lunette

a semicircular wall area, framed by an arch over a door or window; can be plain or decorated

11

Manuscript

a handwritten book or document

12

Medallion

any round ornament or decoration

13

Miniatures

illustrations within albums or manuscripts or intimate portraits

14

Mosaic

images formed by small colored stone/glass pieces (tesserae) affixed to a hard surface

15

Orant figure

representation of a standing figure praying with outstretched and upraised arms

16

Parchment

writing surface made from treated skins of animals; fine parchment: vellum

17

Putto/Putti

a plump, naked little boy, often winged in classical art called a cupid, Christian art called a cherub

18

Quire

a collection of leaves of parchment

19

Scroll

rolled paper with hard support on each end

20

Tesserae

small pieces used for mosaic

21

Vellum

thin parchment

22

Aisle

passage or open corridor that parallels main space of building on both sides

23

Ambulatory

the walkway passage around the apse in a basilican church or around the central space in a central plan building

24

Apse

large semicircular niche jutting out of a building; in christian church, it contains the altar

25

Arcade

a series of arches carried by columns and supporting a common wall or lintel

26

Arcosolium

an arched recess area used as a place of entombment

27

Atrium

unroofed, interior courtyard or in front of a christian church

28

Baptistry

separate, centrally planned structure surrounding the baptismal font

29

Basilica

large rectangular building with clerestory, side aisles separated from the center nave by colonnades, and an apse at the east end

30

Blind Arcade

arcade style with no actual openings; engaged for decoration

31

Buttress

added support from adjacent masonry elements

32

Ciborium

pavilion-like structure supported on four columns

33

Clerestory

topmost zone of a wall with windows in a basilica extending above the aisle roofs

34

Colonnade

row of columns that support straight lintel or series of arches

35

Crypt

underground vault

36

Cruciform

cross-shaped (building)

37

Cubiculum

small rooms for sarcophagi; painted with imagery related to their owners’ religious beliefs

38

Dome

round vault, usually over circular space; two types: pendentive, squinch

39

Loculi

long, rectangular niches in the walls that held 2-3 bodies

40

Mausoleum

building used as a tomb

41

Naos

principal room in a temple or church (nave and sanctuary)

42

Narthex

entrance porch (vestibule) of a church

43

Nave

central space of a basilica, usually flanked by aisles

44

Portal

grand entrance, door, or gate to an important building; often decorated with sculpture

45

Sanctuary

sacred/holy enclosure used for worship

46

Spandrel

area between two arches, as in an arcade

47

Spolia

materials used from previous buildings

48

Tau Plan

building in the shape of the Tau cross

49

Tholos

small, round building; sometimes built underground

50

Tondo

circular painting or relief sculpture

51

Transept

arm of a cruciform church, perpendicular to nave

52

Citron (etrog)

Sukkot emblem symbolizing bounty of earth and unity of all Jews

53

Cross

primary Christian emblem representing Jesus Christ and Christian religion as a whole; symbolizes suffering and triumph of Jesus’ Crucifixion and Resurrection

54

Dove

purity; represents peace when shown with olive branch

55

Fish

Jesus Christ; first letters of “Jesus Christ”, “Son of God”, “Savior” spelled out fish in Greek

56

Lamb

Jesus’ sacrifice on the cross; flock represents disciples cared for by Good Shepherd “Jesus Christ”

57

Lion

St. Mark the Evangelist; imperial figure

58

Lulav

sheaf of palm

59

Palm Trees

symbolizes the bounty of the earth and unity of all Jews

60

Shofar

ram’s horn blown on ceremonial occasions

61

Willow branches

Sukkot emblem that symbolizes bounty of earth and unity of all Jews

62

XP

(Chi rho) First two letters of the word Christos

63

Deésis

“entreaty” Important theme in art consisting of Christ flanked by Mary and Saint John the Baptist

64

Fibulae

a brooch used to fasten cloak

65

Icon

image representing a sacred figure

66

Iconoclasm

banning or destruction of icons and religious art

67

Iconostasis

partition screen in church between sanctuary and body of church and displays icon

68

Pantokrator

“Ruler of all” Status of Jesus Christ

69

Tablion

decorative rectangular panel on clothing

70

Theotokos

“God bearer” Status of Mary, can also be interpreted as Christian community on earth

71

Apsidial Chapel

rounded space off the ambulatory; circular rooms that flank the apse

72

Buttress

supports for walls of the building

73

Drum

wall that supports dome

74

Exedra

semicircular niche

75

Gallery

story found above side aisles of church, usually open to and overlooking the nave

76

Pendentive

concave triangular section of vault that forms transition between square or polygonal space and circular base of dome

77

Oculus

circular opening at apex of dome

78

Quincunx

building in which five domed bays are arranged within a square, with a central unit and four corner units

79

Squinch

arch or lintel built across upper corners of a square space

80

Cloisonné

enamel technique in which metal wire or strips are affixed to the surface to form the design. The resulting areas (cloisons) are filled with enamel (colored glass)

81

Diptych

two decorated panels of equal size hinged together

82

Mandorla

almond-shaped area of light encircling the entire figure of a sacred person

83

Scriptoria

a room in a monastery for writing or copying manuscripts

84

Triptych

artwork of three panels that are hinged together so that side segments fold over central area

85

Reverse Perspective

orthogonals or rays of sight do not converge on a vanishing point, but are thought to originate in the viewer’s eye in front of the picture. Image is constructed with orthogonal that diverge, giving slightly tipped aspect to objects

86

Opus sectile

technique where materials were cut and inlaid into walls

87

Opus tessellatum

technique using small tesserae to make mosaics

88

Tromp l’oeil

manner of representation where appearance of natural space and objects is re-created with intention of fooling the eye of viewer, who may be convinced that subject is actually three dimensional

89

Pendentive

spherical triangles between arches that rise to form openings where dome rests

90

Squinch

Lintels placed across upper corner of wall and supported by arch or corbelled arches. Provides solid base drum for dome.

91

Matthew

Human

92

Mark

Lion

93

Luke

Ox

94

John

Eagle

95

Latin Cross

cross with longer descending arm, most common (the regular one)

96

Greek Cross

all arms of cross are equal length

97

Russian Cross

contains three bars rather than one

98

Tau Cross

Looks like a T

99

Saint Peter's Cross

Upside down regular cross

100

Alpha and Omega

I and X / A and 3 on side