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Flashcards in Romanesque Questions Deck (33)
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Describe Christ and Disciples on the Road to Emmaus

1100, pier relief, Spain
-glide forward on tiptoe
-leader turns back, reversing forward movement
-seem boneless. very curvey. figures interrelate and interlock without exceeding limits of architecture


Describe Those who Work; Those who Fight; Those who Pray

1140, ink and tempera on vellum, England.
-by John of Worcester
-from The Dream of Henry I, Worcester Chronicle Worcester, record of contemporary events
-nightmares where people demanded tax relief
-first night, angry farmers hold up list of grievances
-2nd night, armed knights
-3rd night, monks, abbots, and bishops
-goal was to communicate clearly, and not to decorate, so illustrations give excellent idea of appearance of people


Describe Church of Sant Vincenc

1020-30s, Cardona
-masonry building. windows in nave wall
-transept had two apses and low crossing tower that emphasized importance of choir
-sanctuary raised dramatically over crypt
different sizes of apses, caused by difference in widths of nave and narrower side aisles, created outline of Benedictine Plan
-stone originally covered with stucco
-added strip buttresses joined by arches and arched corbel tables


Describe Cathedral of Saint James in Santiago de Compostela

1078-1122. Spain
-major goal of pilgrimage
-continuous aisles and ambulatory allowed worshipers to move around church without disrupting services at high altar
-octagonal windowed lantern tower over crossing flooded sanctuary with daylight
-chapels are added to aisles and ambulatory, and ambulatory circle apse and choir
-nave ends in western towers, entrance porch, or narthex
-each element of building has distinct geometric form
-pilgrims entered from large doors at transepts
-transept mirrored nave in size and structure
-compound piers with attached half columns on all four sides support immense ribbed barrel vault
quadrant vaults strengthen building by carrying outward thrust
-compound piers and transverse ribs give sculptural form as they mark off individual vaulted bays
-groin vaults span side aisles, quadrant vaults cover galleries, ribbed barrel vaults cover nave
-made of local granite


Describe the Monastery of Cluny

1088-1130. Burgundy, France
-cloister lay at center, joining church with domestic buildings and workshops
-elaborately carved capitals may have served as memory devices to direct monks' thoughts and prayers
-Cluny-function design that combined needs of monks with desire of pilgrims to visit, stone with rich sculptures and painted decoration
-independent status because its abbot answered directly to the pope


Describe Abbey Church of Saint Peter

-Cluny III. basilica with five aisles, double transepts with chapels, and ambulatory with radiating chapels around high altar
-nave had three-part elevation. tall compound piers with pilasters and engaged columns supported pointed arches
-next level, a blind arcade and pilasters created triforium. and on next level, clerestory windows let in light
-ribbed vault made possible by giving vaults a steep profile and slightly decreasing width of nave at top of wall


Describe Reliquary Statue of Sainte Foy

Late 9th -10thc. Silver gilt over wood core, with added gems and cameos. France.
-Saint Faith
-stolen with holy robbery, saying saint encouraged them because she wanted to move
-monks encased skull (relic) in statue. head made from Roman statue


So how bout them Cistercians

disliked Cluny's elaborate liturgical practices and emphasis on the arts
-advocated strict mental and physical discipline and life devoted to prayer and intellectual pursuits combined with shared manual labor
-to provide for minimal needs, resided in swamps and forests in wild, where they farmed and raised sheep
-ideals of simplicity and austerity
-dedicated all churches to Notre Dame


Describe Abbery Church of Notre-Dame

1139-47. Fontenay
-key buildings at right angles to cloister walk so building could easily be extended
-simple geometric plan with long nave and rectangular chapels and shallow choir
-pointed ribbed barrel vaults over nave and pointed arches in nave arcade and side-aisle bays
-harmonious proportions and fine stonework to achieve beauty
-triple windows remind Trinity


Describe Cathedral Complex, Pisa

1063, Italy
-cathedral, bapistry, campanile (freestanding bell tower)
-influenced by Roman
-cathedral designed by Busketos, cruciform plan. long nave with double side aisles crossed by projecting transepts. galleries above side aisles and dome covers crossing
-exterior heavily decorated
-baptistry has arcading and galleries on lower levels of exterior and match those on cathedral
-campanile by Master Bonanno. encased in tier upon tier of marble columns. reuse of colonnade theme into decorative art


Describe Church of San Clemente, Rome

1128. ROME.
-architecture and decoration reflect conscious effort to reclaim artistic and spiritual legacy of early church
-rectangular piers interrupt line of Ionic columns and divide naves into bays
-timber roof disguised by ornate ceiling
-nave and aisles end in semicircular apses


Describe Church of Saint-Savin-Sur-Gartempe

1060-75. France
-tunnel like barrel vault runs length of nave and choir
-supported directly by tall columns without galleries or clerestory windows. hall church. nave and aisles rise to equal height
-continuous vault. suited for paintings


Describe Church of Sant'Ambrogio

1080. Italy
-compound piers support three huge ribbed groin vaults over nave
-added diagonal and transverse ribs
-no clerestory because might weaken structure
-light streaming from altar makes more dramatic


Describe Speyer Cathedral

1080-1106. Germany.
-compound piers mark each nave bay and support transverse ribs of vault
-compound piers alternate with smaller piers for rhythmic pattern
-windows can be inserted because groin vaults relieve stress on side walls
-soaring towers and wide transepts mark both ends of building
-large octagonal tower rises over crossing
-pair of slender tall towers flank choir
-horizontal arcade forms exterior gallery at top of apse and transept wall
-stepped niches follow line of choir roof, and arched corbel tables define roof line and stages of tower


Describe Durham Cathedral

1087-1133. England
-Norman church
-huge circular window is Gothic though
-compound piers alternating with robust columns form nave arcade. columns carved with chevrons, spiral fluting, and diamond patterns
-divided each bay with two pairs of diagonal crisscrossing ribs so kept crowns of vaults close in height to keystones of transverse arches
-in transept, square bays divided in two to produce four-part ribbed vaults over rectangular bays


Describe Church of Saint-Etienne, Caen

1096-1100. France.
-originally built as wood roof basilica
-nave wall has three part elevation with exceptionally wide arches both in nave arcade and gallery
-at clerestory level, arcade of three small arches on colonettes runs in front of windows
-on each pier, engaged columns alternate with columns backed by pilasters and emphasize height
-roof replaced by masonry vault. joined two bays to form square bays defined by heavy piers and six-part vaults
-six-part vaults = transverse ribs crossing space at every pier and ribbed groin vaults springing from heavy piers
-triple arches were reduced to two to accommodate lower masonry vault
-displays preference for verticality
-wall buttresses divide facade into three vertical sections corresponding to nave and side aisles
-stringcourses suggest three stories of building's nave elevation


Describe Dover Castle

12thc. England
-demonstration of military power. illustrates development of key defensive position
-walls were doubled and strengthened with towers
-basically had everything


Describe Creation and Fall

1099. West facade at Modena Cathedral.
-by Wiligelmus. earliest narrative art in Italy
-left, God in mandorla supported by angels appears in two persons as creator and Christ. brings Adam to life.
-middle, brings Eve to life
-Right, Adam and Even cover genitals in shame as they eat from tree, where the serpent twists
-deft carving gives low-relief figures a strong three-dimensionality
-use of miniature arcade to establish stagelike setting
-rocks and tree seem like props
-Adam and Eve stand awkwardly with pot bellies and skinny arms and legs but exude sense of life and personality that gives emotional depth


Describe South Portal and Porch of Priory Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac

1115. France
-major pilgrimage stop
-image of Christ in Majesty dominates huge tympanum
-combines Second Coming and Old Testament prophecies
-Christ stares down and blesses viewer. enclosed by mandorla and cruciform halo rings his head
-4 winged creatures symbolizing evangelists frame Christ, each holding book or scroll
-2 elongated seraphim (angel) stand on either side of central group, holding scroll
-rippling bands represent waves of sea of glass and define three registers in which 24 elders are seated holding harp or incense
-elders were kings and prophets of Old Testament and also ancestors and precursors of Christ
-reflect hierarchy scale. Christ is largest figure.
-variety achieved by turning and twisting gesturing figures, shifting poses off-center, avoiding rigid symmetry or mirror images
-foliate and geometric ornament covers every surface


Describe Trumeau of South Portal at Priory Church of Saint-Pierre

-scalloped profiles that control design of sculpture
-Peter and Isaiah are carved on jambs. Peter steps away from door, but turns back to look through it. shoulder, knees, and feet reflect pointed cusps of jambs. vertical folds of cloak repeat framing colonettes
-trumeau depicts crisscrossing pairs of lions
-decorative scalloping and rosettes, lions, ribbons showed knowledge of Islamic art


Describe Last Judgment, Tympanum on West Portal, Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun

1120-30 or 1130-45. France
-by Gislebertus
-Christ has returned to judge human souls at feet
-Christ dominates composition but surrounding figures are arranged in less regular compartmentalized tiers than sharp angles.
-convey terrifying urgency of moment.
-pair of hands scoops up soul at far right of lintel
-above hands, Michael competes with devils for souls being weighed on scale.


Describe Capital: Suicide of Judas, Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun

1125. France
-historiated capital. narrative scene
-leaves form volutes and establish frame
-two demons string up limp ugly corpse.
-noose could be bag of money or wrestler's belt (useless worldly physical strength)
-screaming demons embody evil
-sculptors achieve crispness and clarity by slightly undercutting forms so that edges are sharpened by shadows


Describe Hildegard and Volmar, Liber Scivias

1165-75. Facsimile frontispiece
-tongue of flames represent flash of divine insight
-she records visions while scribe writes her dictation


Describe Christ in Majesty

1123. Church of San Climent, Spain.
-like Pantokrator. sits within mandorla, alpha and omega
-four angels grasping evangelist symbol appear beside him
-columns with stylized capitals have wavy lines of paint indicating marble shafts
-reflects Byzantine and Mozarabic style


Describe Tower of Babel

1115. Painting in nave vault of Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, France.
-tower in painting is medieval structure, reflecting practice in contemporary settings
-workers haul heavy stone blocks to tower, lifting them to masons on top with hoist
-God confronts people and steps away from them.
-dramatic action, large figures, strong outlines, broad areas of color, and simplified modeling all help with viewer from down below in dim light
-did not use wet-plaster fresco but dampened walls before painting


Describe Crucifix (Majestat Batllo)

Mid-12thc. Polychromed wood, Spain.
-Byzantine robed Christ. royal robes to emphasize his kingship
-bowed head, downturned mouth, heavy-lidded eyes convey sense of deep sadness or contemplation
-pseudo-kufic on long, medallion patterned tunic on hem


Describe Virgin and Child

Late 12thc. Oak with polychromy, France.
-frontally erect, rigid, and regal
-Mary as Throne of Wisdom.
-thronelike bench symbolizes Solomon's lion-throne.
-Mary is Theotokos and Church.
-Christ's hands are missing but believed to once held Word of God and right hand raised in blessing


Describe Tomb Cover with Effigy of Rudolf of Swabia

1080. Bronze with niello, Germany
-spurs on oversized feet identify him as heroic warrior
-holds scepter and crossed orb, emblems of Christian kingship
-fine linear detailing in niello


Describe Baptismal Font, Notre-Dame-Aux-Fontes

1107-1118. Bronze.
-by Renier de Huy
-inspired by 12 oxen in Solomon's Temple
-12 oxens = 12 apostles
-sides, images of John preaching and baptizing Christ and others
-sturdy idealized bodies that move and gesture with convincing reality
-figures convey sense of space where landscape is reduced to rippling ground lines


Describe St. Matthew, from the Codex Colbertinus

1100. Tempera on vellum
-stands within architectural frame that controls his size and form
-compact figure. blesses and holds book. dangling feet bear no weight. blocks of color fill in outlines without giving figure any 3D quality.
-L is formed of plants and animals and is called historiated initial. established size and shape of figurative panel.
-animals twist and bite each other.


Describe Book of Homiles (Sermons)

Early 12thc. Ink on parchment. Germany
-by the Nun Guda
-self portrait into letter D.
-simple drawing with little color
-importance lies in that women were not anonymous workers


Describe The Mouth of Hell, Winchester Psalter

1150. Ink and tempera on vellum. England
-gaping jaws of Hell, monstrous head with dragons sprouting from its mane.
-Hell is tangled mass of sinners, like kings and queens
-reminder of vulnerability of souls


Describe Page with Tree of Jesse

1125. Ink and tempera on vellum. France.
-from Saint Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah
-monumental Mary, standing on forked branches of tree, dwarfs Jesse.
-elongated Mary suggests new sense of humanity
-Christ is portrayed as miniature adult with right hand raised in blessing and cheek pressed against Mary.
-jeweled hems show status as Queen of Heaven