Antimicrobrial chemotherapy Spectrum of commonly used agents Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antimicrobrial chemotherapy Spectrum of commonly used agents Deck (37):
1

List the different B-lactams Penicillins

Benzyl Penicillin
Amoxicillin
Co-amoxiclav
Flulcoxacilin
Piperacillin
Carbapenenms

2

What spectrum does Benzyl Penicillin cover and how is it taken

Largely again gram positive organisms e.g.
pneumoccal, and strep pryogenes
Gram negative exception = meningoccal
Parentally IV

3

When is amoxicillin the best choice and how is it taken

Strepococci
Some coliforms
Orally

4

What is Co-amoxiclav a combination of and what spectrum does it cover

Combination of amoxicillin and B-lactamse enzyme inhibitor (clavulanic acid)
Covers B-lactamase producing coliforms

5

When is flucloxacillin the first choice for treatment and why

Staphylococcal infections
as is resistant to the actions of B-Lactamase

6

What are resistant strains of flucoxacillin called

methicillin resistant staph aureas (MRSA)

7

What spectrum does Piperacillin cover, and what good

Broad spectrum including Gram negative cover - pseudomonas species
Good anti-anaerobic activity

8

What is the name of the combination of piperaciliin and B-lactamse inhibitor tazobactam

Tazocin

9

What are carbapenems and name two of them

Close relative of penicillin
Imipenem and Meropenem

10

What kind of spectrum does carbapenems have

Active against most bacteria including aerobes

11

How does the antibiotic cephalosporins activity differ in gram negative compared to gram positive bacteria

Activity against gram negative organisms increase form first generation compared to activity of gram positives decreasing in activity from first generation

12

What is produced from third generation of gram negative cephalosporins and first generation from gram positive cephalosporins

- = Ceftriaxone
+ = staphylococci

13

What does cephalosporins encourage

Clostridium difficile infection (thrush)

14

What is the spectrum for ahminoglycosides

Gram negative organisms
Most staphlococci (gram +)

15

How are all ahminoglycosides taken and what is the most effective one

Parentally
Gentamicin

16

The two glycopeptides - Vanomysin and teicoplanin's spectrums are

activity against only gram positive organisms (aerobic and anaerobic)

17

The macrolides, clarithromycin and erythromycin spectrums are

actively against gram positive organisms

18

When are Macrolides used

as alternative to penicillin to those allergic

19

What is the spectrum of Quinolones

active against nearly all gram negative organisms including pseudomonas
gram + staphylocci and streptoccoi

20

What is the provides the only possibility of oral therapy
of pseudomonas

Quinolones

21

Give an example of a new quinolone and what its active against

levofloxacin is active against pneumococci and organisms causing a typical pneumonia (treats pneumonia)

22

What is miscellaneous antibiotics metronidazole used to treat

c.diff

23

What at Metronidazoles effective against

anaerobes in both gram positive and negative

24

What is fusidic acid only used for

anti - staphylococcal drug

25

Staphylococcus aureas can develop a reistance easily to fusidic acid, so what should you do fusidic acid

Combine fusidic acid with other anti - staphylococcal drug like flucoxacillin

26

What is trimethoprim used in treatment of

urinary infections

27

What is the combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole called

co-trimoxazole

28

What do tetracyclines inhibit and what infections can they treat

bacterial protein synthesis
Genital tract and respiratory tract

29

What is the only lincosamide antibiotic

clindamycin

30

What does clindamycin have a good activity against

Gram positive organisms - staphylococci + streptococci
and anaerobes

31

What is a good advantage of clindamycin

very good tissue penetration

32

What is linezoid active against and how can it be given

MRSA
orally

33

What is daptomycin is active against what
and maybe useful in in the treatment of what serious infections

gram postive bacteria
MRSA

34

What is fidaxomicin bactericidial working against

c. difficile

35

What agents are used only for the treatment of lower UTIs - antiseptic agents

Nalidixic acid
Nitrofurantoin

36

What is nalidixic acid only active against

gram negative aerobes coliform organisms

37

What is the difference of Nitrofurantoin compared to Nalidixic acid

Nitrofurantoin effective agains more gram negative organisms (excepts pseudomonas) but is also effective against some gram positive organisms