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Flashcards in Culture 1 Deck (13):
1

ACCULTURATION

 

  • Culture change resulting from contact between cultures.
  • A process of external culture change.

2

ACCULTURATION DIFFICULTY

 

  • A problem stemming from an inability to appropriately adapt to a different culture or environment.
  • The problem is not based on any coexisting mental disorder.

3

ACHIEVED STATUS

 

  • Social status and prestige of an individual acquired as a result of individual accomplishments.
  • (cf. Ascribed status)

4

ACTION THEORY

 

  • Social theory in which action, its purposive nature and its meaning to people, is taken to be of central importance.
  • Is often associated with the name of Max Weber, who developed the interpretive tradition in social science.

5

ACTOR-OBSERVER EFFECT

The tendency for actors to weigh any situation more heavily when explaining their behaviour, while observers weigh the actor's dispositions more heavily when explaining the same behaviour.

6

ADAPTATION

 

  • Is a process of reconciliation and of coming to terms with a changed socio-cultural environment by making "adjustments" in one's cultural identity.
  • It is also a stage of intercultural sensitivity, which may allow the person to function in a bicultural capacity.
  • In this stage, a person is able to take the perspective of another culture and operate successfully within that culture. The person should know enough about his or her own culture and a second culture to allow a mental shift into the value scheme of the other culture, and an evaluation of behaviour based on its norms, rather than the norms of the individual's culture of origin. This is referred to as "cognitive adaptation."
  • May also refer to patterns of behavior which enable a culture to cope with its surroundings.

7

ADAPTATION LEVEL

 

Individual standards of comparison for evaluating properties of physical and social environment such as crowding and noise.

8

ADJUDICATION

 

Mediation with the ultimate decision being made by an unbiased third party.

9

ADVOCACY VIEW

 

Of applied anthropology is the belief that as anthropologists have acquired expertise on human problems and social change, and because they study, understand, and respect cultural values, they should be responsible for making policies affecting people.

10

AESTHETICS

 

Appreciation of the qualities discernible in superior works of art; the mind and emotions in relation to a sense of beauty.

11

AFFINAL

 

Members of one's kindred who are related through a marital linkage.

12

AFFINAL KIN

 

  • Persons related by marriage.
  • Direct affinity is the relationship between the husband and his wife's relations by blood or between the wife and the husband's relations by blood.
  • Collateral affinity is the relationship between the husband and the relations of his wife's relations.

13

AFFINALS

 

Relatives by marriage, whether of lineals (e.g., son's wife) or collaterals (e.g., sister's husband).