- The capacity of a measuring device, or indeed of a whole research study, to produce the same results if used on different occasions with the same object of study.
- Enhances confidence in validity, but is insufficient on its own to show validity, since some measurement strategies can produce consistently wrong results.
- Establishing intercoder or interrater reliability may be important in some studies where unambiguous meanings for codes in a coding scheme are at stake, so that exercises in which the same material is coded by more than one person and the results compared for consistency may be carried out.
A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices pertaining to supernatural power.
- Is treating someone differently because of what they do or don't believe.
- Is closely related to racism, but there are differences in how it is expressed and how it is treated in law.
- An example of religious discrimination by the state is non-Muslims being discriminated against in some Islamic states. In many countries legislation specifically prohibits employers from discriminating against individuals because of their religion in relation to hiring, firing and other terms and conditions of employment.
- Today, many western states forbid discrimination based on religion, though this is not always enforced. For example, since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States of America, research conducted by the Level Playing Field Institute and the Center for Survey Research and Analysis at the University of Connecticut revealed that Muslims were rated very low relative to other racial, ethnic, and religious groups in terms of their fit in the American workplace.
- Is closely linked with reliability, involving the repetition of a study to see if the same results are obtained on both occasions.
- (The term has a narrower meaning within the context of the elaboration paradigm.).
A term applied to the emergency salvage of sites in immediate danger of destruction by major land modification projects such as reservoir construction.
Religiously based social movement with the purpose of reforming society.
Movements that occur in times of change, in which religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society.
The linguistic strategies used by speakers or authors of text to convey particular impressions or reinforce specific interpretations, most commonly in support of the authority of the text to speak the truth.
Nutritional disease caused by a shortage of vitamin D; interferes with the absorption of calcium and causes softening and deformation of the bones.
RITES OF PASSAGE
- Culturally defined activities (rituals) that mark a person's transition from one stage of life to another.
- These aim to help participants move into new social roles, positions or statuses.
- Puberty, wedding, childbirth are examples.
- Behaviour that is formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped. A ritual is performed earnestly as a social act.
- Are held at set times and places and have liturgical orders.
- The relation one has with another node in a social network.
- A loving and affective relationship is the role of being a spouse.
A region of the North-Eastern USA roughly between Chicago and New York City that suffered substantial industrial decline, especially after the Second World War.
Things and actions set apart as religious or spiritual which are entitled to reverence.
A smaller study group chosen to represent a larger population.