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Flashcards in Culture 23 Deck (16):
1

INCEST

  • Forbidden sexual relations with a close relative.
  • The incest taboo is one of the most common of all taboos as almost all societies have some form of incest avoidance.

2

INCOME

Earnings from wages and salaries.

3

INDEPENDENT INVENTION

Appearance of the same cultural trait or pattern in separate cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances.

4

INDIGENIZED

Adapted or modified to fit the local culture.

5

INDIGENOUS PEOPLES

  • Those peoples native to a particular territory that was later colonized, particularly by Europeans.
  • Other terms for indigenous peoples include aborigines, native peoples, first peoples, Fourth World, first nations and autochthonous (this last term having a derivation from Greek, meaning "sprung from the earth").
  • The UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues estimates range from 300 million to 350 million as of the start of the 21st century or just under 6% of the total world population. This includes at least 5000 distinct peoples in over 72 countries.

6

INDIVIDUALISM (Collectivism)

Pertains to societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family.

7

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

The process of historical transformation (in Europe, after 1750) of-"traditional" into "modern" societies through industrialization of the economy by applying new discoveries in science, production methods and distribution of labour.

8

INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY

A society integrated by a complex network of occupational specialties supporting the manufacture of material goods.

9

INFORMAL ECONOMY

The economy common to shanytowns, slums where goods and services sold or bartered are unregulated by formal institutions.

10

INFORMATION AGE

  • A form of culture where electronics joins members of diverse cultural backgrounds together.
  • Greater quantities of information than ever before are available to individuals, yet certainty about the way systems operate is less and more subject to question.

11

INFORMATION SOCIETY

A society integrated by complex communication networks that rapidly develop and exchange information.

12

INTEGRATION

  • The bringing of people of different racial or ethnic groups into unrestricted and equal association, as in society or an organization; desegregation.
  • An individual integrates when s/he becomes a part of the existing society.

13

INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE

Use of irrigation, draft animals, terracing, natural fertilizers, selective breeding, mechanization, etc., to grow more food.

14

INTERNATIONAL CULTURE

Cultural traditions that extend beyond the boundaries of nation states.

15

INTERPRETIVE APPROACH IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

  • Regards culture as "texts," to be read and translated for their "thick" meaning.
  • Clifford Geertz is an example of those who represents this approach.

16

INTERPRETIVISM

  • Refers to approaches emphasizing the meaningful nature of people's participation in social and cultural life.
  • The methods of natural science are seen as inappropriate for such investigation. Researchers working within this tradition analyse the meanings people confer upon their own and others' actions.