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Flashcards in Culture 33 Deck (15):
1

PARADIGMATIC VIEW

Is an approach to science, developed by Thomas Kuhn, which holds that science develops from a set of assumptions (paradigm) and that revolutionary science ends with the acceptance of a new paradigm which ushers in a period of normal science.

2

PARADIGMS (KUHNIAN)

  • The overall conception and way of working shared by workers within a particular discipline or research area.
  • In this view, paradigm shifts occur from time to time as scientific communities experience revolutions of thought.

3

PARALANGUAGE

The use of accent, cadence, pitch, and tone to convey meaning.

4

PARALLEL COUSINS

Children of two brothers or two sisters.

5

PARALLEL-COUSIN

Children of the same-sexed siblings of one's parents, e.g., mother's sister's and father's brother's children.

6

PARAMOUNT CHIEF

The highest ranking social office in a chiefdom.

7

PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION

  • Technique for cross-cultural adjustment. This entails keeping a detailed record of your observations, interactions and interviews while living in a culture that is not your own.
  • Is also a fundamental method of research used in cultural anthropology.
  • A researcher lives within a given culture for an extended period of time, to take part in its daily life in all its richness and diversity.
  • The anthropologist in this approach tries to experience a culture "from within," as a person native to that culture is presumed to.

8

PARTICIPATIVE COMPETENCE

  • The ability to interact on equal terms in multicultural environments so that knowledge is shared and the learning experience is professionally enhancing for all involved.
  • Even when using a second language, people with high participative competence are able to contribute equitably to the common task under discussion and can also share knowledge, communicate experience, and stimulate group learning to benefit all parties.

9

PARTICULARISM

  • It reflects the preference for rules over relationships (or vice versa).
  • Particularist societies tend to be more flexible with rules, and acknowledge the unique circumstances around a particular rule.
     

10

PARTICULARITY

Distinctive or unique culture trait, pattern, or integration.

11

PASTORAL NOMADISM

  • A form of social organization that is based on livestock husbandry for largely subsistence purposes.
  • Pastoral nomads are characterized by a high level of mobility which allows them continually to search for new pastures in order to maintain their herds of animals.
  • First known nomadic pastoral society developed in the period from 6200 to 6000 BC in the Middle East.

12

PASTORALIST

Subsistence gained by tending and breeding animals.

13

PASTORALISTS

People who use a food-producing strategy of adaptation based on care of herds of domesticated animals.

14

PATER

Socially recognized father of a child though not necessarily the genitor or biological father.

15

PATH ANALYSIS

A procedure associated with multiple regression involving a diagram indicating the strength and direction of influences between several variables, enabling calculation of direct and indirect causal pathways.