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Flashcards in Culture 14 Deck (15):
1

DETERMINISM

  • Is the view that everything that happens is caused.
  • When applied to human action, it suggests that our perception of having a free will is an illusion, and that the task of social research is to expose the true causes of action.

2

DEVELOPMENT ANTHROPOLOGY

  • Is the branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues and the cultural dimension of economic development.
  • Development here refers to the social action by institutions, private business, state, independent volunteers, who are aiming to modify the economic, technical, political or/and social life of a given place, mostly in developing nations.

3

DIASPORA

  • The term was originally used by the ancient Greeks to mean citizens of a large city who migrated to a conquered land with the purpose of colonization to assimilate the territory into the empire.
  • Later the word was used to refer specifically to the populations of Jews exiled from Judea in 586 BC and from Jerusalem in 70 AD by the Romans.
  • Now the term is used to refer to other population dispersals, voluntary and non-voluntary.
  • The modern term evokes a sense of exile and homelessness.

4

DIFFERENTIAL ACCESS

Refers to unequal access to resources, which is the basic attribute of different social structures from chiefdoms and states.

5

DIFFUSE

It shows "how far we choose to get involved". In a very diffuse culture, a large part of the life is regarded as "private", where other persons without explicit consent have no access.

6

DIFFUSION

Is the borrowing of cultural traits between societies, either directly or through intermediaries.

7

DIGLOSSIA

  • Is the existence in a given society of two (often closely-related) languages, one of high prestige, which is generally used by the government and in formal texts, and one of low prestige, which is usually the spoken vernacular tongue.
  • The high-prestige language tends to be the more formalised.
  • For example in Pakistan, there is a diglossia between the extremely Persianised Urdu (used by the literary elite and the Government officials) and an Urdu that is very similar to Hindi spoken by common people.

8

DIMENSIONS OF DIVERSITY

In humans includes, but is not limited to: culture, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, geography, lifestyle, education, income, health, physical appearance, pigmentation, language, personality, beliefs, faith, dreams, interests, aspirations, skills, professions, perceptions, and experiences.

9

DISCOUNTING

In Kelley's attribution theory, the tendency to reduce the importance of any one cause when other, plausible causes are present.

10

DISCOURSE

  • Has come to refer, under the influence of Foucault, to systems of knowledge and their associated practices.
  • More narrowly, it is used by discourse analysts to refer to particular systems of language, with a characteristic terminology and underlying knowledge base, such as medical talk, psychological language, or the language of democratic politics.

11

DISCRIMINATION

  •  Treatment or consideration based on class or category defined by prejudicial attitudes and beliefs rather than individual merit.
  • The denial of equal treatment, civil liberties and opportunities to education, accommodation, health care, employment and access.
  • State organized discriminations are universal only in mild forms e.g. Non-citizens are excluded from health-care, unemployment support or study support. Extreme cases such as apartheid in South Africa, racial segregation in the USA and anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany are not very common.
  • Normative attempts by governments to reduce discrimination include equal opportunity laws, civil rights legislation and state policies of affirmative action.

12

DISEASE

A scientifically identified health threat caused by a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasite, or other pathogen.

13

DISPLACEMENT

A basic feature of language; the ability to speak of things and events that are not present.

14

 DISTINCTIVENESS

In Kelley's attribution theory, the extent to which the actor's behaviour differs in relation to different targets.

15

DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE

A proposition of social exchange theory in which one's rewards should be in proportion to one's investments.